Work Design: Engineering Approach & System Approach

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Work Design: Engineering Approach and System Approach


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Work Design: Engineering Approach & System Approach:

Work Design: Engineering Approach & System Approach Dr. G C Mohanta, BE( Mech ), MSc( Engg ), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al- Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad - 500005

Work Design:

Work Design Work - mental or physical activity that has productive results. Work Design - is concerned with changing, modifying and enriching work in order to capture the talents of employees while improving organisational performance. It is the process of structuring work & designing the specific activities at individual or group levels. It determines the responsibility of an employee, the authority he enjoys over his work, his scope of decision-making, his level of satisfaction and his productivity

Goals of Work Design:

Goals of Work Design To meet the organizational requirements, such as, higher productivity, operational efficiency, quality of product/service. To satisfy the needs of the individual employees, like interests, challenges, achievement or accomplishment. To integrate the needs of the individual with the organizational requirements.

Approaches to Work Design:

Approaches to Work Design Engineering Approach Socio – technical Systems Approach (System Approach)

Engineering Approach:

Engineering Approach It specifies the tasks to be performed, the work methods to be used and the work flow among individuals. It scientifically analyzes workers' tasks to discover those procedures that produce maximum output with minimum input of energies and resources. This generally results in work designs with high levels of specialization and specification. Such designs allow workers to learn tasks rapidly; They permit short work cycles so that performance can take place with little or no mental effort

Engineering Approach (Contd.):

Engineering Approach (Contd.) They reduce costs because lower-skilled people can be hired and trained easily and paid relatively low wages. This approach produces two kinds of work design: traditional jobs and traditional work groups. When the work can be completed by one person, traditional jobs are created. These jobs tend to be simplified, with routine and repetitive tasks having clear specifications concerning time & motion. When the work requires coordination among people, traditional work groups are developed.

Engineering Approach (Contd.):

Engineering Approach (Contd.) The overall group task is broken into simpler, discrete parts. The tasks and work methods are specified for each part and the parts are assigned to group members. Each member performs a routine and repetitive part of the group task. Members’ contributions are coordinated through external controls, such as, schedules, rigid work flows and supervisions.

Socio-technical System Approach:

Socio-technical System Approach In Socio-technical System Approach , a joint system is operating: social plus technical system. This system is open in relation to its environment. The social part includes the people performing the tasks and the relationships among them and The technical part comprises the tools, techniques and methods for task performance.

Socio-technical System Approach (Contd.):

Socio-technical System Approach (Contd.) The social part operates according to biological and psycho-social laws. Whereas the technical part functions according to mechanical and physical laws. The word ‘system’ communicates that this connection results in a unified whole.

Socio-technical System Approach (Contd.):

Socio-technical System Approach (Contd.) As STS is composed of social and technical parts, it will produce two kinds of outcomes: Products, such as, goods and services and Social and psychological consequences, such as, job satisfaction and commitment. Socio-technical practitioners design work and organizations so that the social and technical parts work well together, producing high levels of product and human satisfaction.

Socio-technical System - Environmental Relationship:

Socio-technical System - Environmental Relationship Such systems are open to their environments. The environment provides the STS with necessary inputs of energy, raw materials, and information, The STS provides the environment with products and services. STS practitioners structure environmental relationships both to protect the system from external disruptions and To facilitate the exchange of necessary resources and information.

Socio-technical System - Self-managed Work Teams:

Socio-technical System - S elf-managed Work Teams The application of STS approach is ‘Self-managed Work Teams’ . Self-managed teams are responsible for a complete product or service, or a major part of a larger production process. They control members' task behaviors and make decisions about task assignments & work methods. The team sets its own production goals and is responsible for support services, such as, maintenance, purchasing and quality control.

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