Models & Theories of Planned Change in OD


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Models & Theories of Planned Change in OD


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Models and Theories of Planned Change:

Models and Theories of Planned Change Dr. G C Mohanta, BE(Mech), MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al-Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad - 500005

Change Management Egg Caterpillar Pupa Butterfly :

Change Management Egg Caterpillar Pupa Butterfly

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What is Change? Coping process of moving from an unsatisfactory present state to a desired state

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Planned Change Planned change results from deliberate attempts by managers to improve organizational operations

What is Change Management?:

What is Change Management? Change management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams & organizations from a current state to a desired future state. The field of change management grew from the recognition that organizations are composed of people and the behaviors of people make up the outputs of an organization.

Activities Involved in Change Management:

Activities Involved in Change Management Defining and instilling new values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors within an organization That support new ways of doing work and overcome resistance to change To make employees more effective contributors to the organization’s goals Building consensus among customers & stakeholders on specific changes designed to meet their needs Improving the organization’s ability to cope with unplanned changes that are thrust upon it

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18- 7 Steps in Planned Change Process Recognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Manage the transition Measure results Maintain change

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Initiating Planned Change Process Recognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Formulate Goals Determine stakeholders’ needs Examine driving and restraining forces

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Force-Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is the Process of analyzing the forces that drive change and the forces that restrain it.

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Driving Forces Driving Forces are the f actors that push toward the new, more desirable status quo

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Restraining Forces Restraining Forces are the factors that exert pressure to continue past behaviors or to resist new actions

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18- 12 Force-Field Analysis Model Restraining Forces Driving Forces Quasi- Stationary Equilibrium

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Reasons for Resistance to Change Selective Perception Lack of Information Fear of the Unknown Habit Resentment Toward the Initiator Sub-Optimization Structural Stability

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Overcoming Resistance to Change Education and Communication Participation and Involvement Facilitation and Support Negotiation and Agreement Manipulation and Co-optation Coercion Promote Positive Attitudes Toward Change

Models and Theories of Planned Change:

Models and Theories of Planned Change Lewin’s change Model Action Research Model The Burke- Litwin Model General Model of Planned Change & Systems Theory

Lewin’s Change Model:

Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing

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Unfreezing Helps people accept that change is needed because the existing situation is not adequate & appropriate

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Moving/ Changing Involves rearranging of current work norms and relationships to meet new needs

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Refreezing Reinforces the changes made so that the new ways of behaving become stabilized

Burke–Litwin Model of Change :

Burke– Litwin Model of Change First Order Change happens when some features of the organization change which leads to: - Transactional change & - Change in organisational climate Second Order Change happens when the organization undergoes certain fundamental changes which leads to: - Transformational change - Change in organizational culture

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Burke - Litwin Model of Organisational Change Transformational factors Transactional factors

Burke – Litwin Model (Contd) :

Burke – Litwin Model ( Contd ) There are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics Transactional leaders contribute to normal performance by guiding & motivating the employees towards the goals Transformational leaders are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on the employees

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General Model of Planned Change Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change Planning and Implementing Change Diagnosing Entering and Contracting

Entering and Contracting:

Entering and Contracting Entering and contracting involves: gathering initial data to understand the problems facing the organization and developing a contract with OD practitioner, after discussing the problems with managers & other organization members The contract spells out: future change activities, the resources that will be committed to the process, and how OD practitioners and organization members will be involved.


Diagnosing Diagnosing focuses on: understanding organizational problems with help of an appropriate model and gathering, analyzing and feeding back information to managers & organization members about the problems Diagnostic models explore three levels of activities: (i) Organization issues, (ii) Group-level issues and (iii) Individual-level issues The data is gathered through interviews, observations and survey instruments and Is reviewed and analyzed for understanding the problems

Planning & Implementing Change:

Planning & Implementing Change Organization members and practitioners jointly plan and implement OD interventions to achieve organization's goals There are four major types of interventions in OD: (i) Human process interventions at individual, group and total system levels. (ii) Interventions those modify an organization's structure and technology. (iii) Human resource interventions that seek to improve member performance and wellness. (iv) Strategic interventions to manage organization's relationship with external environment and to provide internal structure & process necessary to support a business strategy Implementing interventions is concerned with managing the change process.

Evaluating & Institutionalizing Change:

Evaluating & Institutionalizing Change The final stage in planned change involves: Evaluating the effects of the intervention Managing the institutionalization of successful change programs and Feedback to organization members about intervention's results providing information about whether the changes should be continued, modified, or suspended Institutionalizing successful changes involves reinforcing them through feedback, rewards, and training

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Systems Theory Organizations are open systems in active exchange with their environment David A. Nadler The Congruence Model

Congruence Among System Elements:

Congruence Among System Elements Input factors Environment Resources History Organizational Elements Strategy Work People Formal and Informal Organization Output Factors System Unit Individual

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Systems Theory (Contd.) Eric Trist Socio-technical Systems Theory (STS) All organizations comprised of two interdependent systems: Social system Technical system To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction, organizations must optimize both systems. Changes in one system affect the other system.

Benefits of System Theory:

Benefits of System Theory Effective Problem Solving Effective leadership Effective Communication Effective Planning Effective Organizational development Avoiding founder's syndrome

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