A Short History of Organization Development (OD) and Its Evolution

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A Short History of Organization Development (OD) and Its Evolution

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A Short History of Organization Development and Its Evolution:

A Short History of Organization Development and Its Evolution Dr. G C Mohanta, BE(Mech), MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al-Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad - 500005

Organizational Development:

Organizational Development It involves both 'hard' and 'soft' issues The 'hard' issues for OD are strategies and policies, structures and systems The 'softer' issues are developing appropriate skills, behaviours and attitudes to achieve optimum performance Both the 'harder' and 'softer' issues of OD need to be addressed to avoid conflict between goals and needs

History of Organisation Development:

History of Organisation Development LABORATORY TRAINING ACTION RESEARCH SURVEY FEEDBACK PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT QUALITY OF WORK LIFE STRATEGIC CHANGE C U R R E N T O D P R A C T I C E

Laboratory Training Background:

Laboratory Training Background Laboratory training began in 1946, when Kurt Lewin was asked for help in research on training community leaders A workshop was developed and the community leaders were brought together At the end of each session the researchers discussed the behaviors they had observed Thus the first T-group was formed in which people reacted to data about their own behavior

Laboratory Training Background (Contd.):

Laboratory Training Background (Contd.) The researchers drew two conclusion about this first T- group experiment: Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning experience The process of “group building” had potential for learning that could be transferred to “back home” situations Applying T-group techniques to organizations gradually became known as team building

Action Research and Survey Feedback Background :

Action Research and Survey Feedback Background The action research contribution began in 1940 The research needed to be closely linked to the actions A collaborative effort was made, to collect the organizational data To analyze the cause of the problem and then to device and implement a solution Further data was collected to asses the results

Participative Management Background:

Participative Management Background Participative management is a means of getting employees involved in planning and managing change Four types of management systems: Exploitative authoritative system Benevolent authoritative systems Consultative systems Participative group systems

Participative Group Systems:

Participative Group Systems Likert applied participative group system to organization using a survey feedback process Asked the members about the present and the ideal conditions about the organization Generated action plans to move the organization towards participative group system condition

Productivity and Quality of Work Life (QWL) Background:

Productivity and Quality of Work Life (QWL) Background Contribution of QWL is explained in two phases: The first phase was developed in Europe in 1950 based on the research of Eric Trist The program involved developing a work design, aimed at better integration of technology and people Participation by unions and management in the work design The distinguishing characteristics of this program was developing self managing groups

Productivity and QWL Background (Contd.):

Productivity and QWL Background (Contd.) The second phase of QWL continues under the banner of employee involvement Employee contribution helps in running the organization so that it can be more flexible, productive and competitive This approach examined both technical & human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated

Strategic Change Background:

Strategic Change Background This background is the recent influence on OD’s evolution Strategic change involves improving alignment among an organization's environment, strategy and design Richard Bechhard used open system planning He described the difference between organization’s demand and the way it responds, could be reduced and performance improved

Second Generation OD:

Second Generation OD Organization Transformation Organizational Culture Learning Organization Total Quality Management Visioning and Future Search Business Process Reengineering

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