KM Framework-Hansen,Earl,Alvesson & Karreman

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KM Framework of Hansen, Earl, Alvesson and Karreman

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KM Framework - Hansen, Earl, Alvesson and Karreman:

KM Framework - Hansen, Earl, Alvesson and Karreman Dr. G C Mohanta, BE(Mech), MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen:

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen Hansen identified two strategies for managing knowledge in an organization: - Codification & Personalization strategies Type of knowledge management strategy used by organisations needs to best accommodate - the way individuals create and transfer knowledge Types of relationships/ties between individuals in the organisations, when creating & sharing knowledge - influences the type of knowledge management strategy used

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.):

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.) In developed social groups - “communities of practice”, where knowledge is created & shared informally: use of the personalization strategy would best complement this type of knowledge transfer Where social ties are weak & there is little social interaction between individuals: technology is the most utilised form of information creation & transfer and use of a codification strategy would be most appropriate

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.):

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.) Those implementing a codification strategy will invest heavily into IT to codify, store and transfer explicit knowledge to all those within the organisation Personalisation strategy will require far less IT investment - as technology is only required to facilitate social relationships  within the organization

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.):

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.) In the study of strategies used by consultancy firms, Hansen found out that Best thing is to choose either a personalization or a codification strategy and not both The strategy chosen should reflect the company’s competitive strategy If a consulting company has a focus on giving tailored and creative advice: then a personalization strategy is the best choice Codification strategy is more useful when knowledge can be reused often

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.):

Knowledge Management Framework of Hansen (Contd.) General conclusion on KM strategies is that companies should not ‘straddle’ when choosing for a KM strategy - instead the focus should be on just one of the two strategies - otherwise companies run the risk of getting ‘stuck in the middle’

Earl’s Seven School of Knowledge Management:

Earl’s Seven School of Knowledge Management Instead of using division - personalization/codification, Earl proposed seven schools of knowledge management strategy: - Systems, Cartographic, Engineering, Commercial, Organisational, Spatial and Strategic These schools identify the types of knowledge management strategy undertaken by organisations Earl categorises these seven schools into three broad types: - Technocratic, Economic and Behavioural

Earl’s Seven School of Knowledge Management (Contd.):

Earl’s Seven School of Knowledge Management (Contd.) Technocratic schools approach knowledge management through: - information or management technologies - that support and condition employees in their everyday tasks Economic schools aim to explicitly create revenue through: - exploitation of knowledge as an asset The Behavioural schools approach knowledge management from: - a behavioural perspective - stimulating and orchestrating managers and managements to proactively create, share & use knowledge resources

Earl’s Seven School of Knowledge Management (Contd.):

Earl’s Seven School of Knowledge Management (Contd.) Seven schools of knowledge management strategy proposed by Earl is - to give managers an idea on where and how to begin with KM Each school has a different focus, and companies can have multiple schools represented in their company The result of this is that - companies do not have to choose for a focused view, as proposed by Hansen, - but instead can pick those schools that fulfill the needs of the company, whether tacit or explicit. The result is that companies do not do a little bit of everything - but instead focus on two or three different schools - allowing the strategy to remain focused yet also contain both tacit and explicit elements

  Seven Schools of Knowledge Management:

Seven Schools of Knowledge Management Technocratic Economic Behavioural School/ Attribute Systems Cartographic Engineering Commercial Organisational Spatial Strategic Focus Technology Maps Processes Income Networks Space Mindset Aim Knowledge Bases Knowledge Directories Knowledge Flows Knowledge Assets Knowledge Pooling Knowledge Exchange Knowledge Capabilities Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capabilities Commercialistion Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches :

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches Alvesson and Karreman used the framework of four management styles - as the basis for developing four specific approaches to knowledge management They make it clear that the distinction between four different approaches to KM are: - analytical rather than empirical and - organisations are unlikely to exclusively use one approach to knowledge management.

Mode of Managerial Intervention:

Mode of Managerial Intervention Mode of Interaction Co- ordinaton : ‘weak’ management Control: ‘strong’ management Social: attitude centered COMMUNITY: Sharing of ideas NORMATIVE CONTROL: Prescribed interpretations Technostructural : behaviour focussed EXTENDED LIBRARY: Information exchange ENACTED BLUEPRINTS: Templates for action

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) :

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) The Extended Library approach to KM combines - - behavioural focused controls with a relatively weak form of co-ordinated management and - represents a relatively bureaucratic, centrally controlled and top down form of KM - in which IT systems (such as knowledge data bases) play an important role.

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) :

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) The Community approach to KM combines - - culture based socially focused controls with a weak form of management This approach to KM gives a very limited role to IT systems, - focusing instead around encouraging the direct sharing of knowledge between people Management efforts with this approach are focused on - creating a climate, culture and context to induce such behaviours

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) :

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) The Normative Control approach to KM combines – - socially focused controls with a relatively strong form of management intervention. This is KM via culture management, whereby management attempt to create a culture - that encourages employees to embrace a value system which regards knowledge sharing as a norm

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) :

Alvesson and Karreman’s Knowledge Management Approaches (Contd.) The fourth approach to KM articulated by Alvesson and Karreman is - the Enacted Blueprints approach, - which combines a strong form of managerial intervention with behavioural controls This involves managerial efforts being concerned with creating codified data bases of knowledge focused - around particular roles and tasks - that provide a mechanism for giving employees access to what are considered a set of best practices

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