Steps in developing a valid competency model

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Steps in developing a valid competency model

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Steps in Developing a Valid Competency Model:

Steps in Developing a Valid Competency Model Dr. G C Mohanta, BE(Mech), MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor

Competency Model:

Competency Model Competency model lists the competencies required for effective performance in: a specific job job family organization function or process Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to: understand, discuss & apply the competencies to workforce performance

Competency Model (Contd.):

Competency Model (Contd.) Competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of formats Common approach is to identify several ‘‘core’’ or ‘‘key’’ competencies that are essential for all employees Then identify several additional categories of competencies that apply only to specific subgroups Some competency models are organized according to the type of competency: leadership, personal effectiveness, technical capacity Other models may employ a framework based on: job level, with a basic set of competencies for a given job family & additional competencies added cumulatively for each higher job level within job family

Competency Model Relationships:

Competency Model Relationships

Steps in Developing a Valid Competency Model:

Steps in Developing a Valid Competency Model There are seven steps in developing a Competency Model: Step One: Defining Objectives Step Two: Obtain Support of a Sponsor Step Three: Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan Step Four: Plan Methodology Step Five: Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model Step Six: Apply Competency Model Step Seven: Evaluate and Update Competency Model

Defining Objectives:

Defining Objectives For defining objectives, four essential questions to be answered: Why is there a need to develop the competency model? What is the unit of analysis? What is the relevant timeframe? How the competency model will be applied?

Obtain Support of a Sponsor:

Obtain Support of a Sponsor A sponsor is necessary for each competency modeling project He provides information, resources, support & authorization to ensure its success The key element of support is: commitment & participation of employees, managers, professionals from whom data will be collected Sponsors should have influence & jurisdiction over relevant units He should be the chief executive, department head, program manager, etc.

Obtain Support of a Sponsor (Contd.):

Obtain Support of a Sponsor (Contd.) To convince sponsor about usefulness of competency model project , answers to following questions to be prepared: What specific organizational needs will the competency model address? How will the model address these needs? What additional potential applications will the model have? How will the model be developed? Why is this approach being used?

Obtain Support of a Sponsor (Contd.):

Obtain Support of a Sponsor (Contd.) How will employees, managers, professionals & other stakeholders be involved? How long will it take to develop and apply the model? What actions will be taken to ensure the success of both the model development & its application? What are some of the potential barriers & what are the plans for addressing them? What are the tangible & intangible costs of developing the model?

Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan:

Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan To get success in any competency project, convince those who are stakeholders Work with people who know the organization well to identify stakeholders Assess probable level of support that can be expected from each stakeholder

Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan (Contd.):

Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan (Contd.) Informally classify them into three categories: Committed - They will participate willingly, provide funding/ resources & will influence others Compliant - They will do what they are asked to do Resistant – They may strongly oppose, refuse to cooperate, delay requested actions, or attempt to stop the study Passive resisters may appear to comply but actually attempt to undermine the study

Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan (Contd.):

Develop and Implement a Communication & Education Plan (Contd.) Plan a communication strategy to address probable concerns Organisational leaders may fear that their autonomy will be replaced by competency model To decrease anxiety, emphasize that competency model will provide tools & guidelines for decision-making Create a schedule for communicating with each stakeholder Communicate at periodic intervals throughout the study to keep everyone informed Communication plan should specify media to be used: in-person briefings, conference calls, e-mail, voicemail , posters, staff meetings, newsletters, videos, memos

Plan Methodology :

Plan Methodology Select Sample of individuals from whom data to be collected: Using Multiple Groups - Collect data about required competencies from both job incumbents & others familiar with the work Focus on High Performers – They will provide accurate data about competencies required for excellent job performance Desirable Characteristics of the Sample - Ensure that people selected to identify competencies have strong analytical & verbal abilities Selecting a Representative Sample - Sample should be proportionately similar to the entire population

Plan Methodology (Contd.):

Plan Methodology (Contd.) Consider following factors in selecting the data collection methods: Validity - The method should accurately reflect required competencies for the job role Reliability - The method should provide reliable data Application – The method should take into consideration the application of identified competencies to be applied Efficiency - Time & other resources required in instrument development, administration & analysis of results Practicality - The method should be practical Acceptance - The job incumbents, managers & other stakeholders in the study should accept the method as a reasonable way to collect data

Plan Methodology (Contd.):

Plan Methodology (Contd.) Use following data collection methods: Literature Review Focus Groups Structured Interviews Behavioral Event Interviews Surveys Observations Work Logs Competency Menus and Databases Use Complementary Data Collection Methods Plan the Data Recording and Analysis Conduct Pilot Testing

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model:

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model Job Definition – It describes each of the key elements of the job A comprehensive job study as follows, helps to define job: Input (resources, triggers for action) Processes (the actions taken to create the outputs) Outputs (deliverables such as products or services) Consequences (desired results for client/organization/ individual) Feedback (communication about the work) Conditions (rules, regulations, policies)

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.):

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.) Identification of Competencies Competency identification directly follows the definition of job content. If the job-study focused on 6 elements of work, then identification of competencies will be based on competencies required for 6 elements If the job study method focused on duties & tasks, then the identification begins with first task and continues through the last task

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.):

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.) Assemble the Competency Model Cluster similar knowledge, skills, abilities & personal characteristics together to avoid creating an extensive list The objective is not to create an exhaustive list of competencies for research purposes The goal is to create a list of most critical competencies for everyday application in training & personnel management This set of competencies, with a clear definition for each, constitutes the competency model. To remain manageable, the number of competencies should be 20 or less

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.):

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.) Review by Subject Matter Experts Draft lists of competencies & their definitions should be reviewed by subject matter experts (SMEs) SMEs should have extensive experience with the target job and knowledge of the job content Ideal SME is a superior performer who previously functioned in the job, but was promoted to a higher level

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.):

Identify Competencies & Create Competency Model (Contd.) Develop Behavioral Examples To complete the competency model, behavioral examples should be developed for each competency Behavioral examples can be based on information collected while defining job content & identifying competencies Job incumbents & their supervisors can be asked to provide examples of how the competencies are applied on the job The purpose of these behavioral examples is to illustrate how competencies are actually demonstrated

Apply Competency Model:

Apply Competency Model Competencies identified are used to select, develop, manage, reward & compensate employees Employees know what competencies are required for success & how they will be evaluated Strategic Workforce Planning Develop assessment tools to determine whether workforce possesses the competencies necessary to meet organizational goals

Apply Competency Model (Contd.):

Apply Competency Model (Contd.) Selection Based on competencies: Develop criteria for screening & evaluating resumes Develop content specifications for written tests, performance tests, etc. Prepare interview guides & rating scales Create interview questions to find out, how candidates have demonstrated competency in their past work

Apply Competency Model (Contd.):

Apply Competency Model (Contd.) Training and Development Use the competencies to design a curriculum for training and other workforce development activities Create a multi-rater feedback instrument to assess employee needs for competency development Prepare development guides for the employees with suggestions to build/strengthen each competency

Apply Competency Model (Contd.):

Apply Competency Model (Contd.) Performance Management Develop guides for managers to help them conduct discussions with their employees about their performance of the competencies Create rating guides to assist managers in the assessment of each competency Develop a performance appraisal process & forms that incorporate the competencies. Succession Planning Design tools to help senior leaders assess critical competency gaps in the pool of succession candidates Develop instruments to assess the competencies of managers who appear to have high potential for advancement Create guides describing senior-level career paths and the competencies required for each step in those paths

Apply Competency Model (Contd.):

Apply Competency Model (Contd.) Rewards and Recognition Design a recognition program based on the demonstration of highly-valued competencies or clusters of competencies Create a guide for managers to reward the demonstration of specific competencies by their employees Compensation Design a competency-based compensation program where employees’ salaries increase, based on proficiency in selected competencies

Evaluate and Update Competency Model:

Evaluate and Update Competency Model After development & application of competency model, it is to be evaluated to find out its effectiveness Examine how the competency modeling process & the utility of the model could be improved Competency model should be revised, if there is any change in: organizational strategies environmental conditions job design regulations professional practices or other key factors

Evaluate and Update Competency Model (Contd.):

Evaluate and Update Competency Model (Contd.) Technical competencies become outdated, before personal effectiveness or leadership competencies A schedule for reviewing currency of a competency model should be established If target job/organization has changed significantly, the study for a new competency model should be conducted If there is no significant changes - interviews, focus groups, surveys, or SME groups is used to revise & update the model

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