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-BY GAURAV RAJPUT:

-BY GAURAV RAJPUT IP

Motivation:

M otivation

:


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What Is Motivation? Direction Persistence Intensity

Direction, Intensity and Persistence:

Direction, Intensity and Persistence Fixing a particular goal- Direction Effort put in to achieve the goal- Intensity For a time (Till achieving the goal)- Persistence

What is Motivation at Work ?:

Motivation. The individual forces that account for the direction, level, and persistence of a person’s effort expended at work. What is Motivation at Work ?

What is Motivation to Work?:

What is Motivation to Work? Direction. An individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives. Level. The amount of effort a person puts forth. Persistence. The length of time a person stays with a given action.

The Motivation Process:

The Motivation Process Unsatisfied need Tension Search behavior Satisfied need Reduction of tension Observable externally Drives Internal Internal

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Organizational Behavior 9 Theories of Motivation Content Theories Identify internal factors influencing motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Alderfer’s ERG Theory Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene theory Process Theories Identify the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence motivation Vroom’s Expectancy theory 10/26/2014

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level. The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows: :

Human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level. The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows:

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Psychological: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention. Self-actualization: The drive to become one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment.

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Lower order needs ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs Higher order needs( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self-actualization

Maslow’s Theory Limitation :

Maslow’s Theory Limitation Lack of hierarchal structure Lack of relationship between need and behavior Individual needs are different Some people may not be a part of hierarchy

ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY :

ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY

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Condenses Maslow’s model into three levels Based on core needs of existence , relatedness and growth Individuals progress through the ERG needs hierarchy though Alderfer suggests that it is a continuum rather than a hierarchy

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More than one need may be activated at the same time. Individuals may progress down the hierarchy. If needs are blocked at one level then attention will be focused on satisfaction of needs at other levels.

Alderfer has categorized the various need into three categories:- :

Alderfer has categorized the various need into three categories:- EXISTENCE NEEDS. RELATEDNESS NEEDS. GROWTH NEEDS.

ERG Theory — cont.:

ERG Theory — cont . Existence needs. Desire for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs. Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships. Growth needs. Desire for continued personal growth and development.

Content Theories—Alderfer’s ERG Theory :

Content Theories— Alderfer’s ERG Theory G rowth R elatedness E xistence Growth, advancement, creativity Self-respect, prestige, status Affection, belonging, love Security, stability, protection Food, water, sleep

Implication of ERG theory :

Implication of ERG theory It avoids the implication that the higher up an individual is in the need hierarchy, better it is. Different type of need operate simultaneously. It includes satisfaction progression and frustration regression component.Satisfaction progression process suggests that after satisfying one category of needs a person progresses to the next level. If individual path toward satisfaction is blocked, he may persist along the path, but at same time, he regresses toward more easily satisfiable need. It distinguishes between chronic need and episode need. .

CRITICISM:

CRITICISM No empirical support

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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg avoids using the word ‘need’ and maintains that in any work situation, you can distinguish between two sets of factors. Hygiene factors features of the work environment which, if present, help avoid dissatisfaction with work. concerned with job context e.g work environment, status, company procedures, quality of supervision. Can be related roughly to Maslow’s lower-level needs. :

Herzberg avoids using the word ‘need’ and maintains that in any work situation, you can distinguish between two sets of factors . Hygiene factors features of the work environment which, if present, help avoid dissatisfaction with work. concerned with job context e.g work environment, status, company procedures, quality of supervision. Can be related roughly to Maslow’s lower-level needs.

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Motivators features of the job itself that people find enjoyable and that have a motivational effect. Mainly intrinsic in nature e.g. sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility. can be related to Maslow’s higher-level needs.

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Organizational Behavior 27 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory 10/26/2014

Limitations of Herzberg two factor theory:

Limitations of Herzberg two factor theory Limited by its methodology. The reliability of Herzberg's theory is questionable. The theory to a degree is valid as it provides explanation for job satisfaction. It is not really a theory of motivation. There is no overall measure of satisfaction was utilized.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory:

Expectancy Theory Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it. Assumes that: Behavior is determined by a combination of personal and environmental forces. People make decisions about their own behavior in organizations. Different people have different types of needs, desires, and goals. People choose among alternatives of behaviors in selecting one that that leads to a desired outcome.

Expectancy Theory (cont’d):

Expectancy Theory (cont’d) Model of Motivation Suggests that motivation leads to effort, when combined with ability and environmental factors, that results in performance which, in turn, leads to various outcomes that have value (valence) to employees.

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Organizational Behavior 32 Expectancy Theory 10/26/2014

Thought Processes and Decisions:

Thought Processes and Decisions Vroom’s Expectancy Theory motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence Expectancy a person’s belief that working hard will result in achieving a desired level of task performance Instrumentality a person’s belief that successful performance will lead to rewards and other potential outcomes Valence the value a person assigns to the possible rewards and other work-related outcomes.

Expectancy Model of Motivation:

Expectancy Model of Motivation Performance Reward Effort Effort Perceived effort– performance probability Perceived value of reward Perceived performance– reward probability “If I work hard, will I get the job done?” “What rewards will I get when the job is well done?” “What rewards do I value?”

How Expectancy Theory Works:

How Expectancy Theory Works Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.

Guidelines for the Use of Expectancy Theory:

Guidelines for the Use of Expectancy Theory Practical use of the theory by managers: Determine the primary outcome each employee wants. Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible. Link desired outcomes and desired performance. Analyze the situation for conflicting expectations. Make sure the rewards are large enough. Make sure the overall system is equitable for everyone.

WHAT IS LEADERSHIP??:

WHAT IS LEADERSHIP??

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The process of influencing a group towards the achievement of goals.

WHO IS A LEADER??:

WHO IS A LEADER??

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Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority or A leader is a person who can influence or motivate others to do what he wants them to do.

LEADERSHIP vs. MANAGERSHIP:

LEADERSHIP vs. MANAGERSHIP Manager Leader 1.He drives and orders 2.He depends on authority 3.He engenders fear 4.He fixes blames and finds fault 5.He knows all the answers 6.He makes the work drudgery 7.He believes in ‘I’ 1.He coaches and advises 2.He depends on his confidence and goodwill 3.He inspires enthusiasm 4.He solves problems 5.He consults and seeks advice 6.He makes work a game. 7.He believes in ‘WE’ and ‘YOU’

BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES:

BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES

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Behavioural theory emphasises that strong leadership is the result of effective role behaviour. Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his traits. Researchers exploring leadership role come to the conclusion that to operate effectively, group needs to perform two functions:- Task Related Function:- It is also known as problem solving functions, relates to providing solutions to the problem faced by the group, in performing jobs and activities. Group Maintenance Function:- It is also known as social functions, relates to action of mediating disputes and ensuring that individuals feel valued by gro ups

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Functional Behaviour :-Functional behaviour influences followers positively and includes such functions as setting clear goals, motivating employees for achieving goals, raising the level of morale, building team spirit, effective two way communication. Dysfunctional Behaviour :-Dysfunctional behaviour is unfavourable to the followers and denotes ineffective leadership. Such a behaviour may be inability to accept employees ideas, display of emotional immaturity, poor human relations etc.

The Ohio State University Studies :

The Ohio State University Studies

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Initiating Structure – the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment.

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Consideration – the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings. The studies concluded that leaders high in initiating structure and high in consideration ( a “ high-high leader ”) tended to achieve high employee performance and satisfaction.

University of Michigan Studies:

University of Michigan Studies

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Employee Oriented Leadership – An employee oriented leader is one who emphasizes the interpersonal relations. Such leaders take personal interest in the needs of their subordinates. Production Oriented Leadership – A production oriented leader is one who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of the job. The main concern of such leaders is in accomplishing their group’s tasks.

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Michigan studies reported that employee-oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction

MANAGERIAL GRID:

MANAGERIAL GRID

Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed the managerial grid. The managerial grid is more complex and identifies five leadership styles that combine different degrees of concern for production and concern for people. The belief that there is one best style of leadership. Concern for production: the desire to achieve greater output, cost-effectiveness, and profits. Concern for people: promoting friendships, helping coworkers get the job done, and attending to things that matter to people:

Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed the managerial grid. The managerial grid is more complex and identifies five leadership styles that combine different degrees of concern for production and concern for people. The belief that there is one best style of leadership. Concern for production : the desire to achieve greater output, cost-effectiveness, and profits. Concern for people : promoting friendships, helping coworkers get the job done, and attending to things that matter to people

Blake and Mouton proposed a nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles. The grid is based on the styles of concern for people and concern for production:

Blake and Mouton proposed a nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles. The grid is based on the styles of concern for people and concern for production

THE MANAGERIAL GRID:

THE MANAGERIAL GRID 1,9 9,9 5,5 1,1 9,1 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 LOW HIGH 4 concern for people 1 2 3 9 4 5 8 7 6 LOW HIGH Concern for production

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The Leadership Grid Styles 9, 1 style: primary concern for production; people secondary. 1, 9 style: primary concern for people; production secondary. 1, 1 style: minimal concern for production or people 5, 5 style: moderate concern for both production and people to maintain the status quo. 9, 9 style: high concern for both production and people (commitment, trust, and teamwork )

Trait Theories of Leadership:

Trait Theories of Leadership

Trait Theories of Leadership :

Trait Theories of Leadership Trait theories: Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader? Are such characteristics inherently gender biased? Do such characteristics produce good leaders? Does this imply that leaders are born not made?

Trait Theories (1920s-30s):

Trait Theories (1920s-30s) Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non leaders who was unsuccessful. studies lead to the conclusion that there was no such set of personal characteristics that by themselves distinguished leaders from non-leaders.

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A few traits such as above average intelligence, responsibility, self confidence, and persistence were associated with leaders, but they are not sufficient Later Studies:

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Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.

Traits Often Shared by Effective Leaders:

Traits Often Shared by Effective Leaders Drive Successful leaders have high energy, display initiative, and are tenacious. Self-confidence Successful leaders trust themselves and have confidence in their abilities. Creativity Successful leaders are creative and original in their thinking. Cognitive ability Successful leaders have the intelligence to integrate and interpret information. Business knowledge Successful leaders know their industry and its technical foundations. Motivation Successful leaders enjoy influencing others to achieve shared goals. Flexibility Successful leaders adapt to fit the needs of followers and demands of situations. Honesty and integrity Successful leaders are trustworthy; they are honest, predictable, and dependable.

Limitations of Trait Theories:

Limitations of Trait Theories No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders

Fiedler’s Theory:

Fiedler’s Theory

Fiedler’s Theory:

Fiedler’s Theory Fiedler’s contingency theory proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with his/her subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.

Fiedler’s Theory:

Fiedler’s Theory Therefore, the theory proposes a 3 step model consisting of Identifying the leadership style Defining and analyzing the situation, and Matching the leader and situation

Fiedler created the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire to identify the basic leadership style of an individual. The questionnaire consisted of 16 sets of bipolar adjectives on a 8-point scale. :

Fiedler created the Least Preferred Co-Worker ( LPC ) Questionnaire to identify the basic leadership style of an individual. The questionnaire consisted of 16 sets of bipolar adjectives on a 8-point scale.

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On the basis of the results, individuals with high LPC score were termed as task-oriented leaders and individuals with low LPC scores were termed as relationship-oriented leaders . After determining the basic leadership style, the next step involves defining and analyzing the situation in terms of favourableness or unfavourableness. For that purpose, Fiedler identified 3 contingency dimensions: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.

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Leader-Member relations mean the degree of confidence, trust and respect subordinates have in their leader. This can be good or poor . Task structure implies the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized , that is, structured or unstructured. It can be either high or low .

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Position power means the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases. It can be strong or weak. The final step in Fiedler’s model proposes matching leaders and situations.

Findings from Fiedler Model:

E X H I B I T 11-2 Findings from Fiedler Model

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The model concluded that task-oriented leaders tended to perform better in situations that were either very favourable or very unfavourable. Relationship oriented leaders were found to be effective in moderately favourable or unfavourable situations.

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Fiedler’s theory has been criticized on several grounds, such as: The assumption that leadership style is fixed is not valid The LPC is not a valid tool to identify the leadership style The contingency variables are difficult to be measured and analyzed accurately.

Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory:

Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory

Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory:

Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory Like Fiedler’s theory, this theory also proposes a 3 step model. These steps are: Identifying the leadership style Identifying the followers’ state of readiness, and Matching leadership style with followers’ state of readiness

Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory:

Hersey & Blanchard’s Theory Unlike Fiedler, Hersey & Blanchard assume that leadership style is flexible, that is, one person can and should display different leadership styles in different situations, depending on the competence and willingness of the followers. Further, one may even lead the same person one way sometimes, and another way at other times.

Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard):

Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Able Willing Unwilling Unable High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring Follower Readiness Leadership Styles Directive

Hersey And Blanchard’s Situational Theory:

Hersey And Blanchard’s Situational Theory A Contingency theory that focuses on follower’s readiness Its followers that accept or rejects leaders Readiness means the extent to which people have ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task If followers are unable and unwilling to do a task ,the leader needs to give clear and specific direction

Hersey And Blanchard’s Situational Theory (cont..):

Hersey And Blanchard’s Situational Theory (cont..) If followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for followers lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get followers to “buy into” the leader’s desires If followers are able and unwilling, the leader need to use a supportive and participative style If followers are both able and willing the leader doesn’t need much to do

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The theory states that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which is contingent on the followers’ readiness.

The Situational Leadership Model:

The Situational Leadership Model Delegating Participating Selling Telling High Moderate Low R1 R2 R3 R4 Able and willing or confident Able but unwilling or insecure Unable but willing or confident Unable and unwilling or insecure 4.Provide specific instruction and closely supervise performance 1.Share ideas and facilitate in decision making 3.Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation 2.Explain your decisions and provide opportunity for clarification

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According to this theory, there are 4 specific styles of leadership: Telling (high task-low relationship) Selling (high task-high relationship) Participating (low task-high relationship) Delegating (low task-low relationship)

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The next step involves defining followers’ state of readiness. R1 (unable-unwilling) R2 (unable-willing) R3 (able-unwilling) R4 (able-willing)

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Therefore, the theory recommends that the leader should use a telling style with immature followers who are at R1 stage. The selling style should be used with unable but willing kind of followers who are at R2 stage . The participating style is appropriate for followers who are able but unwilling, that is, who are at R3 stage. Finally, for the most mature followers who are both able and willing, that is, at R4 stage, delegating style will be most effective

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SLT essentially views the leader-follower relationship as analogous to that of a parent and a child. Just as a parent needs to relinquish control as a child becomes more mature and responsible, so, too, should leaders.

Limitations of SLT SLT is criticized because Hersley and Blanchard have neglected to provide a coherent and explicit rationale for the hypothesized relationships. Also they oversimplified the situation by giving only surface recognition to follower maturity. Also as in the grid approach there is a noted absence of any empirical test of this model. :

Limitations of SLT SLT is criticized because Hersley and Blanchard have neglected to provide a coherent and explicit rationale for the hypothesized relationships. Also they oversimplified the situation by giving only surface recognition to follower maturity. Also as in the grid approach there is a noted absence of any empirical test of this model.

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