Filipino Values and Moral Development : Filipino Values and Moral Development Strengths and Weaknesses of the Filipino Character Strengths & Weaknesses of the Filipino Character : Strengths & Weaknesses of the Filipino Character Note: This material is from Filipino Values & Moral Development published by the Economic Development Foundations in November, 1992
The study was sponsored by the Philippine Senate and was headed by Senator Leticia Shahani. It was conducted by a task force headed by Dr. Patricia Licuanan. The findings were based on bibliographic surveys and interviews and consultations with researchers and practitioners in the behavioral and social sciences, education and social welfare, journalists and social analysts; a nationwide survey of 2000 respondents; and, focus group discussions among residents of an urban poor resettlement area in Bagong Bayan, Dasmariñas, Cavite.
From the study was developed “A Moral Recovery Program – Building a People, Building a Nation” Submitted to the Philippine Senate. Strengths of the Filipino Character 1/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 1/8 Pakikipagkapwa-Tao
Filipinos are open to others and feel one with others. We regard others with dignity and respect and deal with them as fellow human beings. Pakikipagkapwa-tao is manifested in a basic sense of justice and fairness and in concern for others. It is demonstrated in the Filipino’s ability to empathize with others, in helpfulness and generosity in times of need (pakikiramay), in the practice of bayanihan or mutual assistance, and in the famous Filipino hospitality.
Filipinos possess a sensitivity to people’s feelings (pakikiramdam), pagtitiwala or trust and a sense of gratitude or utang na loob. Because of pakikipagkapwa-tao Filipinos are very sensitive to the quality of interpersonal relationships and are very dependent on them. If our relationships are satisfactory, we are happy and secure.
Pakikipagkapwa-tao results in camaraderie and a feeling of closeness to one another. It is the foundation for unity as well the sense of social justice. Strengths of the Filipino Character 2/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 2/8 Family Orientation
Filipinos possess a genuine and deep love for family which includes not simply spouse and children, parents and siblings, but also grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, godparents and other ceremonial relatives. To the Filipino, one’s family is the source of personal identity, the source of emotional and material support and one’s main commitment and responsibility.
Concern for the family is manifested in the honor and respect given to parents and elders, in the care given to the children, the generosity towards kin in need, and in great sacrifices one endures for the welfare of the family.
This sense of family results in a feeling of belongingness and rootedness in a basic sense of security. Strengths of the Filipino Character 3/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 3/8 Joy and Humor
Filipinos have a cheerful and fun-loving approach to life and its ups and downs. We have a pleasant disposition, a sense of humor and a propensity for happiness that contribute not only to the Filipino charm but also to the indomitability of the Filipino spirit. Laughing at ourselves and the mess we are in is an important coping mechanism. Often playful, sometimes, disrespectful, we laugh at those we love and at those we hate and we make jokes about our good fortune and bad.
This sense of joy and humor is manifested in the Filipino’s love for socials and celebrations, in our capacity to laugh even in the most trying of times, and in the appeal of political satire.
The result is a certain emotional balance, optimism, a healthy disrespect for power and office and the capacity to survive. Strengths of the Filipino Character 4/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 4/8 Flexibility, Adaptability and Creativity
Filipinos have a great capacity to adjust and to adapt to circumstances and the surrounding environment, both physical and social. Unplanned or anticipated events are never overly disturbing or disorienting as the flexible Filipino adjusts to whatever happens. We possess a tolerance for ambiguity that enables us to remain unfazed by uncertainly or lack of information. We are creative, resourceful, quick learners, and have the ability to improvise and make use of whatever is at hand in order to create and produce.
This quality of the Filipino is manifested in the ability to adapt to life in any part of the world, in the ability to make new things out of old scraps, in the capacity to keep old machines running, and of course, in the creative talent manifested in the cultural sphere. It is likewise seen in the ability to accept change.
The result is productivity, innovation, entrepreneurship, equanimity and survival. Strengths of the Filipino Character 5/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 5/8 Hard Work and Industry
Filipinos have the capacity for hard work given proper conditions. The desire to raise one’s standard of living and to possess the essentials of a decent life for one’s family, combined with the right opportunities and incentives, makes the Filipino work very hard. This is manifested most noticeably in willingness to take the risks with jobs abroad and, while there, to work at two or three jobs. The result is productivity and entrepreneurship for some and survival despite poverty for others. Strengths of the Filipino Character 6/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 6/8 Faith and Religiosity 1/2
Filipinos have deep faith in God. Our innate religiosity enables us to comprehend and genuinely accept reality in the context of God’s will and plan. Thus, tragedy and bad fortune are accepted and some optimism characterizes even the poorest lives.
Filipinos live very intimately with religion. It is tangible, and touchable—a part of everyday life. We ascribe human traits to a supernatural God whom we alternately threaten and thank, call upon for mercy or forgiveness and appease by pledges. Thus prayer is important part of our lives.
The faith of the Filipino is related to bahala na which, instead of being viewed as defeatist resignation, may be considered positively as a reservoir of psychic energy, an important psychological prop on which we can lean during hard times. This pampalakas ng loob allows us to act despite uncertainty. Strengths of the Filipino Character 7/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 7/8 Faith and Religiosity 2/2
Our faith and daring was manifest at EDSA and other times in our history even when it was difficult to be brave. It is also seen in the capacity to accept failure and defeat without our self-concept being devastated since we recognize forces external to ourselves as contributing to how events in our lives turn out.
The results of the Filipino’s faith are courage, daring optimism, inner peace, as well as the capacity to genuinely accept tragedy and death. Strengths of the Filipino Character 8/8 : Strengths of the Filipino Character 8/8 Ability to Survive
Filipinos have an ability to survive, which is manifested in our capacity for endurance despite difficult times and in our ability to get by, on so very little. Filipinos make do with what is available in the environment (e.g., eking out a living from a garbage dump). This survival instinct is related to the Filipino’s other strengths—a basic optimism, flexibility and adaptability, hard work and a deep faith in God. It is manifested in the millions of Filipinos who bravely live through the harshest economic and social circumstances. Regretfully, one wonders what we might be able to do under better circumstances. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 1/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 1/8 Extreme personalism 1/2
Filipinos view the world in terms of personal relationships and the extent to which one is able to personally relate things and people determines the recognition of their existence and the value given to them. There is no separation between an objective task and emotional involvement. This personalism is manifested in the tendency to give personal interpretations to actions, i.e., “take things personally.” Thus, a sincere question may be viewed as a challenge to one’s competence or positive feedback may be interpreted as a sign of special affection. There is in fact some basis for such interpretations as Filipinos are quite personal in criticism and praise. Personalism is also manifested in the necessity for the establishment of personal relationships before any business or work relationships can be successful. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 2/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 2/8 Extreme personalism 2/2
Because of this personalistic world view, Filipinos have difficulty dealing with all forms of personal stimuli. It is for this reason that one is uncomfortable with bureaucracy, with rules and regulations and with standard procedures, all of which tend to be impersonal. In the face of these, we ignore them or we ask for exceptions.
Personal contacts are involved in any transaction and these are difficult to turn down. Preference is usually given to family and friends in hiring, delivery of services and even in voting. Extreme personalism thus leads to the graft and corruption evident in Philippine society. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 3/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 3/8 Extreme Family Centeredness
While concern for the family is one of the Filipino’s greatest strengths, in the extreme it becomes a serious flaw. Excessive concern for the family creates an in-group to which the Filipino is fiercely loyal to the detriment of concern for the larger community or for the common good.
Excessive concern for family manifests itself in the use of one’s office and power as a means of promoting the interest of the family, factionalism, patronage and political dynasties, and in the protection of erring family members. It results a lack of concern for the common good and acts as a block to national consciousness. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 4/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 4/8 Lack of Discipline
The Filipino’s lack of discipline encompasses several related characteristics. We have a casual and relaxed attitude towards time and space which manifests itself in lack of precision and compulsiveness, in poor time management and procrastination. We have an aversion for following strictly a set of procedures and this results in lack of standardization and quality control. We are impatient and unable to delay gratification or reward, resulting in the use of short-cuts, in skirting the rules (the palusot syndrome) and in foolhardiness. We are guilty of ningas cogon, starting out projects with full vigor and interest which abruptly die down leaving things unfinished.
Our lack of discipline often results in efficient and wasteful work systems violations of rules leading to more serious transgressions and a casual work ethic leading to carelessness and lack of follow-through. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 5/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 5/8 Passivity and Lack of Initiative
Filipinos are generally passive and lacking in initiative. One waits to be told what has to be done. There is strong reliance on others (e.g., leaders, government) to do things for us. This is related to one’s attitude towards authority. Filipinos have a need for a strong authority. One is generally submissive to those in authority and is not likely to raise issues or to question decisions.
Filipinos tend to be complacent and there rarely is a sense of urgency about any problem. There is high tolerance for inefficiency, poor service and even violations of one’s basic rights. In many ways, it can be said that the Filipino is too patient and long suffering (matiisin). Too easily resigned to one’s fate. Filipinos are thus easily oppressed and exploited. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 6/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 6/8 Colonial Mentality
Filipinos have a colonial mentality which is made up of two dimensions: the first is a lack of patriotism or an active awareness, appreciation and love of the Philippines; the second is an actual preference for things foreign.
Filipino culture is characterized by an openness to the outside—adapting and incorporating the foreign elements into our image of ourselves. And yet this image is not built around a deep core of Philippine history and language. The result is cultural vagueness or weakness that makes Filipinos extraordinarily susceptible to the wholesale acceptance of modern mass culture which is often Western. Thus there is preference for foreign fashion, entertainment, lifestyles, technology, consumer items, etc.
The Filipino colonial mentality is manifested in the alienation of the elite from their roots and from the masses as well as in the basic feeling of national inferiority that makes it difficult for Filipinos to relate as equals to Westerners. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 7/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 7/8 Kanya-Kanya Syndrome
Filipinos have a selfish, self-serving attitude that generates a feeling of envy and competitiveness toward others, particularly one’s peers who seem to have gained some status or prestige. Towards them, the Filipino demonstrates the so-called crab mentality (referring to the tendency of crabs in a basket to pull each other down) using the traveling instrument of tsismis, intriga and unconstructive criticism to bring others down. There seems to be a basic assumptions that another gain is one’s loss.
The kanya-kanya syndrome is also evident in the personal ambition and the drive for power and status that is completely insensitive to the common good. Personal and in-group interests reign supreme. This characteristic is also evident in the lack of a sense of service among people in the government bureaucracy. The public is made to feel that service from these offices and from these civil servants is an extra perk that is to be paid for.
The kanya-kanya syndrome results in the dampening of cooperative and community spirit and in the trampling upon the rights of others. Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 8/8 : Weaknesses of the Filipino Character 8/8 Lack of Self-analysis and Self-reflection
There is a tendency in the Filipino to be superficial and even somewhat flighty. In the face of serious problems, both personal and social, there is lack of analysis or reflection. We joke about the most serious matters and this prevents looking deeply into the problem. There is no felt need to validate our hypotheses or explanations of things. Thus, we are satisfied with superficial explanations and superficial solutions to problems.
Related to this, the Filipino emphasis on form (maporma) rather than on substance. There is a tendency to be satisfied with rhetoric and to substitute this for reality. Empty rhetoric and endless words are very much part of public discourse. As long as the right things are said, as long as the proper documents and reports exist, as long as the proper committees, task forces or offices are firmed, Filipinos are deluded into believing that what ought to be, actually exists.
The Filipino lack of self-analysis and our emphasis on norms is reinforced by an educational system that is often more form than substance and a legal system that tends to substitute law for reality.