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ppt on football with its history and rule


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FOOTBALL MADE BY- Ananya Maurya Class- 11 th ‘B’



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Football is an outdoor game played between two teams with a ball on a pitch with goals at each end. Football is one of the most popular and simple games in the world. The game began in England in the 12th century. With the growing popularity of the game, delegates from seven nations formed the Federation International de Foot Ball Association (FIFA) on May 21st 1904. India has its own tradition and varieties of foot ball played in different areas of the country. But it was the British model of foot ball which came to be accepted in India from the earlier part of the 19th century. The Association foot ball (soccer) is played by two teams, each of 11 players including the goal keeper, who attempt to get the ball into the opponents goal by kicking it

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The first national trophy contested by six teams at its inception was founded by a Britisher , who was then India's Foreign Secretary, Sir Mortimer Durand at Army Establishments. Over the years, a number of clubs and tournaments proliferated all over the country, especially at Calcutta, Bombay, Bangalore and Hyderabad. Besides the National Championships, the I.F.A shield, the Durand, the DCM, the Rovers and the Nehru Tournaments; and for the juniors the Subroto Mukerjee and the Little Durand tournaments have given us talented footballers. India made the debut in Olympic Foot ball at the London games in 1948. India first won the foot ball gold at the inaugural Asiad in Delhi in 1951. Indian women also have ventured into the field of Foot ball with considerable success. They clinched the third place in the 1981 Asian Women's Cup Foot ball Championships staged in Hong Kong

History of Indian Football:

History of Indian Football The origin of football in India can be traced back to mid nineteenth century when the game was introduced by British soldiers. Football spread among the masses thanks to the efforts of one Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhichary . Several football clubs like Calcutta FC, Sovabazar , Mohun Bagan and Aryan Club were established in Calcutta around 1890s. Calcutta, then capital of British India, soon became the hub of Indian football. Tournaments like Gladstone Cup, Trades Cup and Cooch Behar Cup was also started around this time. Durand Cup and IFA Shield was started in late nineteenth century making them two of the oldest football competitions in the world.

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Initially, games were played between army teams. However, clubs were soon set up around the country. The first "native" team to achieve success was Sovabazar Club, which won the Trades Cup in 1892. Mohun Bagan Athletic Club was set up in what is now West Bengal in 1889. The club became famous in 1911 when it became the first Indian team to lift the IFA Shield, a tournament previously won only by British teams based in India. It defeated the Eastern Yorkshire Regiment 2–1 in the final of the tournament in a victory that is still regarded by many as the greatest win by an Indian team before Independence. The Indian Football Association (IFA) was established in Calcutta in 1893, but did not have a single Indian on its board until the 1930s.

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India qualified by default for the 1950 FIFA World Cup finals as a result of the withdrawal of all of their scheduled opponents. But the governing body AIFF decided against going to the World Cup, being unable to understand the importance of the event at that time. Reason shown by AIFF was that there was the cost of travel, although FIFA agreed to bear a major part of the travel expenses , lack of practice time, team selection issues and valuing Olympics over FIFA World cup . Although FIFA imposed a rule banning barefoot play following 1948 Olympics where India had played barefoot. The myth that Indians refused to play because they were not allowed to play barefoot is not entirely true, according to the then Indian captain Shailen Manna, it was just a story to cover up the disastrous decision of the AIFF . The team has never since come close to qualifying for the World Cup .

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The Indian team also won gold medals in football at the 1951 and 1962 Asian Games, and finished fourth at the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne. 1951–1962 is usually considered as "golden phase" of Indian football. The National team won numerous titles in this era under the coaching of Syed Abdul Rahim. Other than success in Asian Games football India also won Merdeka Cup and Quadrangular Tournament while East Bengal garnered rave reviews after its tour of Romania. Rahim's death in the early 1960s pegged Indian football back after a successful period. India did qualify for its first Asian Cup in 1964 but failed to capture the title. India's last important performance in an international tournament was in 1970 Asian Games, when it won the bronze medal by defeating Japan 1–0. In mid-70s, Indian youth team jointly won the Youth Asian Cup with Iran. Indian football would go through a barren phase in 70s, 80s and 90s, gradually losing its foothold as a top Asian team.

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In January 2011 India played in the 2011 Asian Cup which was the first time India has played in the Asian Cup for 24 years. India were knocked out in the group stage which containedSouth Korea, Australia, and Bahrain. Ever since the 2011 Asian Cup the All India Football Federation has been working very hard on Indian Football. For instance they allowed former coach Bob Houghton coach the Indian side in the 2012 AFC Challenge Cup qualifiers. After going first in there AFC Challenge Cup group Bob Houghton was sacked and replaced by the current Indian coach Wim Koevermans . Meanwhile the India national under-23 football team won the first round of the 2012 Olympics qualifiers against Myanmar but were knocked out by Qatar. India played their next official matches against United Arab Emirates in the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifiers which India lost on aggregate 5–2.

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The National Football League , established in 1996 by the All India Football Federation was the first semi-professional football league in India. Since its founding, however, many other leagues have been founded in India. In a study made by FIFA in 2006 there are around 6,540 clubs registered with the AIFF. League system

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The I-League was founded in 2006 after India's former top league the National Football League disbanded in a successful effort aimed at increasing the game in India. Links with clubs that were not in the I-League were maintained, and each season the bottom two clubs are relegated from the I-League and replaced by two from the I-League 2nd Division . The I-League is contested between 14 clubs each season. I-League

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The I-League 2nd Division ranks second in the hierarchy of Indian football since the disbanding of India's top league in 2005. The I-League 2nd Division has 21 member clubs evenly divided among three divisions. Promotion and relegation of clubs still takes place between the I-league and the I-League 2nd Division. I-League 2nd Division

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State league football is considered the best amateur leagues in India. Each state has their own league in India. There is no promotion/relegation between the state leagues and the I-League 2nd Division but there could be promotion/relegation between leagues within the state. For example, the Calcutta Football League has three divisions with promotion/relegation but the winner of the Calcutta Football League will not get promoted to the I-League 2nd Division . State League football Youth leagues Right now the official youth league in India is the I-League U19 which was won by JCT FC in 2011. The format for the 2012 I-League U19 has not yet been announced.

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Cup competitions

Federation Cup:

Federation Cup The Federation Cup (abbreviated as Fed cup) is an annual knockout style club football tournament in India. It has started in 1977. From its inception till I-League has been started in 1997 (then called NFL), it was the most prestigious national level club football tournament in India. Presently it is the most important club tournament after I-league. Winning club of Federation cup gets a chance to compete in the continental level in AFC Cup along with I-league champion team.

Durand Cup:

Durand Cup The Durand Football Tournament was started by then, India's Foreign Secretary, Mortimer Durand at Simla , India, in 1888, initial matches were played in Dagshai . It was basically initiated, as a recreation for British troops stationed in India. The Durand Cup was twice suspended, during the two world wars. In 1940 the venue was shifted to New Delhi .

Indian Super Cup:

Indian Super Cup The Indian Super Cup is a one-off annual Indian club association football match contested between the I-League champions and the Federation Cup winners. If the I-League champions also won the Federation Cup then the league runners-up provide the opposition. The winners of the game receive the Shield as a trophy for the year, while players also receive individual winners medals.

Santosh Trophy:

Santosh Trophy Santosh Trophy is an annual Indian football tournament which is contested by states and government institutions. The first winners were Bengal, who also lead the all-time winners list with 31 titles till date . The IFA Shield is an annual football competition organized by the Indian Football Association. It is the fourth oldest club cup competition in the world (Started in 1893) after the English and Scottish FA cup's and the Durand Cup. IFA Shield

Women's football :

Women's football Women's football has not had the relative head start over the rest of the world that the men's game has had, and also has not had the chance to spread through the country like its male counterpart. The game was administerd by the Women's Football Federation of India (WFFI) from 1975 until the early 1990s when they were absorbed into the AIFF. However, there are complaints that women's football is treated as a poor relation to the men's game leading to (unfulfilled) plans to de-merge the WFFI. [10] The women's game, like the men's game, also has its early pioneers in the state of West Bengal. The large Kolkata teams, East Bengal and Mohun Bagan , started women's club sides in the 2000–01 season, and they participate with other teams in the Calcutta Women's Football League . However, it has been seen recently that players from Manipur have made advances in the game. Players from these two states make up a large part of the India women's national football team .

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The main women's national competition is played on a state vs. state basis in the India women's football championship . [11] There are also similar national championships for junior teams like the Junior Girls National Championship (for under 19s) and the Under-17 Girls National Championship . Some female players have become internationally recognised . Among them are Chitra Gangadharan who was selected to play for the All Asian Star team. Jaanki Kotecha was selected as captain to the All Asian Star Team in 2008–2009, where she led her team to victory. In February 2000, Sujata Kar and Alpana Sil became the first Indian footballers to sign a contract outside India. They signed with the German team TSV Crailsheim , but had to return after a month due to problems with the clearance of their international transfer.

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Until 1983, women's football took part in international tournaments like the AFC Women's Asian Cup . For example the team won silver in 1980 at Calicut. In later years it had become poor in status just like its male counterpart. During the 2003 AFC Women's Championship , the Indian team were embarrassed by a 12–0 defeat to China . [12] The poor support of the national team by the AIFF became evident, when the team's trip to Germany was only made possible by Non Resident Indians in the country, and by the support of the German Football Association . Furthermore, championships are held in remote locations, and national media coverage is said to be restricted to state and local newspapers. [10]

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The women's game reached a new low in June 2009 when FIFA delisted the side from its world rankings for being out of action for more than 18 months. This comes at a time when the game was gaining in popularity amongst the younger generation as evident by the local leagues conducted around the country. The recently concluded Mumbai Women's Football League 2009–10 organised by the MDFA (Mumbai District Football Association) was a major success and featured many talented players who had played for the national team. Furthermore the popularity of the event gave hope that the women's game could rise in India

Stadiums in India :

Stadiums in India There are many football stadiums in India, however only a few of these stadiums are of World Standards. These are namely, Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi with a capacity of over 60,000 and the Ambedkar Stadium with a capacity of 20,000 but is known to have had crowds of 35,000 in the 2009 Nehru Cup . The main stadium in West Bengal, we have the Salt Lake Stadium in Kolkata with a capacity of 120,000. In Sikkim, the Paljor Stadium in Gangtok which seats over 25,000 is famous as one of the most beautiful stadiums in the world as it is situated in the backdrop of Himalayas. In Shillong the main stadium is the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium with a capacity of 25,000 standing. Both the Paljor and the JLN in Shillong have been renovated and now have artificial playing surfaces. Some other stadiums important stadiums are the Balewadi Stadium in Pune , the Fatorda Stadium in Goa , the Kaloor International Stadium in Kochi , the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Guwahati . Apart from the above mentioned stadiums, there are hundreds of more stadiums in the country. However, with India likely to host the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup there is definitely going to be massive renovation of said stadiums around the country.


MEASUREMENT SPECIFICATION 1} Ground Dimension: 120 yards (110m)X 80 yards (73m) 2} Officials of match: 1 referee, 2 ass. Referee or linesmen, 1 commissioner, 1 injury timekeeper. 3} Weight of football: 14 to 16 ounce. 4} Circumference of football: 27 to 28 inches 5} Goal post dimension: 8 yds (7.3m) X 8ft (2.44m) 6} Centre circle radius: 10 yards (9.15 m) 7} Corner arc: 1 yard (91cm) at corners 8} Height of flags: 5 feet 9} Penality point: 12 yd (11m) 10} Goal line: 5 inches

Players :

Players A match is played by two teams each  team consisting of ten outfield players (defenders, midfielders and strikers) and a goal keeper. Substitutes may be used in any match played under the rules of a competition subjected to the authority of the international association or national association. The team is not permitted to use more than two substitutes in any match unless the teams reach an agreement or the referee is informed. The substitute will not enter the field of play until, the player he is replacing has left and then only after having received a signal from the referee. He shall enter the field during a stoppage in the game and at the half-way line. A player who has been replaced shall not take any further part in the game

Basic Rules of Soccer:

Basic Rules of Soccer Soccer has 17 laws or “rules” by which the game is played. Most of these laws are easy to understand. The laws are designed to make soccer fun, safe, and fair for all participants. The object of soccer is for a player to get the ball into the other team’s goal by using any part of the body except the player’s hands and arms. The goalie is the only player allowed to touch the ball with the hands and arms and then only while he is located in his own penalty area. A referee is in charge of the soccer game. A referee’s main objective should be the safety of the players. It is the referee’s responsibility to ensure that the game remains fun for everyone. This includes players, spectators and the officials . You will undoubtedly question some of the officiating calls as you watch a soccer game. This is only natural. To be fair to the referee you should read and understand the 17 laws so that you have a good understanding of the rules of soccer.

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Try to keep in mind that everyone who is watching a game has a different perspective. Spectators will be most likely, rooting for one team or the other. This will influence how they view the game. The spectators will more than likely have a family member playing in youth soccer. Also keep in mind that everyone will be viewing the game from a different angle. Try to give the referee the benefit of a doubt. The referees are much closer to the play than spectators. They should be trained in the laws and impartial to the game’s outcome. The 17 laws described below are the basic laws of soccer accepted throughout the world. These laws are usually altered slightly so the game is more fun and beneficial for young players. Each league should have a specific set of rules it will follow. These rules should be distributed to the coach. Look over the rules of your league to make sure you fully understand them.

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This is the basic layout of a soccer field. The size of the field will vary from league to league, usually depending on the age of the players. LAW 1 - The Field of Play A regulation size soccer ball is a No. 5 ball. Youth leagues may use different size balls, such as a No. 3 ball or a No. 4 ball, depending on the age of the children. LAW 2 - The Ball

LAW 3 - Number of Players :

LAW 3 - Number of Players There must be no more that 11 players on the field of play for either team. A minimum number of players is usually 7. Some youth leagues encourage games with less than 11 players to help in the development of young players. One player from each team must be designated as a goalkeeper. The goalkeeper must wear a different color shirt from his teammates so that everyone can easily distinguish the goalie. The goalie can only use his hands inside the penalty area. Players must wear the same colored jersey or shirts. All youth programs require shin guards to be worn by all players. If your players will be wearing cleats, make sure they are soccer cleats. A soccer cleat does not have a cleat at the front edge of the shoe like a baseball cleat. This is for safety. LAW 4 - Player’s Equipment

LAW 5 - Referees :

LAW 5 - Referees The referee enforces the 17 laws. There is one difference between soccer and most other sports played in America. In soccer, the referee may let play continue and not call a foul if he or she thinks that stopping play would give an advantage to the team committing the foul. This is called the “advantage clause”. The referee should say “play on” when this occurs.

LAW 6 - Linesmen and Lineswomen :

LAW 6 - Linesmen and Lineswomen Two linesmen may assist the referee in controlling the game. The linesmen’s duty is to signal to the referee when the ball is out; to indicate a corner kick, a goal kick or to designate which team is entitled to the throw-in. The linesmen may also signal offsides , fouls or misconduct if a goal has been scored or when substitution is desired. The referee on the field makes the official and final decisions. The linesmen are there to assist the referee; the referee may or may not act upon their advice. Coaches should not expect to have linesmen at their youth soccer games. Sometimes you are lucky to have a single referee. I have coached games where the opposing coach and I had to take turns being the referee, because an official never showed up.

LAW 7 - Duration of the Game :

LAW 7 - Duration of the Game The duration of the game will depend on the age of the children. Older children will more than likely have two halves. Younger children often times play four quarters. Your league will determine whether quarters or halves are played and how long each will be.

LAW 8 - Start of Play: Kick Off and Drop Ball :

LAW 8 - Start of Play: Kick Off and Drop Bal l A kick off is taken to start a game, to restart play after a goal has been scored or to start the second half or a new quarter. At kickoff all players must be on their team’s half of the field. The ball is placed on the center spot in the middle of the center circle. The ball must be kicked forward at least one full rotation into the opponents’ “half of the field.” The team that kicks off to begin the game is determined by a coin toss between the captains and the referee. After a goal the team that was just scored upon starts the kick off. For new quarters and halves, the team, which did not kick off the previous quarter or half will kick off. A goal cannot be scored by kicking the ball directly into the goal on a kick off .

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A drop ball is played when the referee stops play for a reason other than a rule infraction. An injury is a good example. The referee restarts play by dropping the ball between two players, one from each team. A dropped ball may not be played until it touches the ground. The first player playing the ball is allowed to play the ball again without it having to be touched by another player. This means the player may dribble, pass or shoot the ball after touching it.

LAW 9 - Ball In and Out of Play :

LAW 9 - Ball In and Out of Play The ball is out of play whenever it is completely outside the outside edge of the touchline or the goal line either on the ground or in the air. Also it is out of play when the referee stops play for any reason. The ball is in play if any part of the ball is inside or touching the touchline or goal line. The ball is considered in play after bouncing off of a goal post, cross bar, corner flag, linesmen or referee if the ball remains on the playing field.

LAW 10 - Method of Scoring :

LAW 10 - Method of Scoring A goal can only be scored if the entire ball goes completely over the outside edge of the goal line, under the cross bar and between the goal posts while it is in play. Any player may score goals, including the goalie. Except when taking a free kick, throwin , goal kick, penalty kick or kick off, a ball played by a player directly into his own goal is a score for the opposing team.

LAW 11 - Offside :

LAW 11 - Offside An offensive player must have two opponents including the goalkeeper between himself and the goal line at the moment the ball is passed to him. Offside is determined when the ball is passed to the player, not when the player receives the ball. Offside position and offside are not the same. It is not against the rules to be in an offside position. It is against the rules to be offside. Here is a definition of these two concepts.

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Offside Position - A player is in the offside position if he is: • ahead of the ball and • in the opponents half of the field and • there are fewer than two opponents even with or ahead of him. Offside -A player who is in the offside position becomes offside when • he participates in the play or • he interferes with an opponent or • otherwise tries to take advantage of being in the offside position. Exceptions - A player in an offside position is not to be called offside if he receives the ball directly from: • a throw-in or • a corner kick or • a goal kick.

LAW 12 - Fouls and Misconduct :

LAW 12 - Fouls and Misconduct There are two kinds of fouls in soccer: • Penal or Major Fouls. • Non-Penal or Minor Fouls. There are nine penal or major fouls. These fouls must be committed intentionally and may result in a Red Card”. The fouls are as follows:

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• Kicking a player. • Jumping up at a player. • Charging a player in a rough way. • Charging a player from behind. • Tripping a player. • Hitting or spitting at a player. • Pushing a player. • Holding a player. • Handling the ball. (Except by a goalkeeper). This foul is called if the player is trying to control the ball with his hands or arms.

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If one of these nine penalty fouls is committed and the referee blows his whistle and calls a foul, the opposing team gets a direct free kick. A “direct” kick means the opponent can try to score a goal directly from the kick. If the player committing the major foul receives a “red card” from the referee, he must leave the game, and is not allowed to return. There are five non-penal or minor fouls. If a player commits a minor foul he may receive a “Yellow Card” from the referee.

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The five minor fouls are: • Dangerous play. Examples of a dangerous play are: high kicking near another player’s head, or trying to play a ball held by a goalie. • Fair charging, but with the ball out of playing distance. • Illegal obstruction. When a player intentionally takes a position between the ball and an opponent, when not within playing distance of the ball. • Charging the goalkeeper in the goal area. • Goalkeeper Infringements. • Goalkeeper taking more than four steps while controlling the ball. • Goalkeeper playing the ball with his hands when the ball is kicked by a teammate. • Intentionally wasting time.

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(These three Goalkeeper Infringement fouls will not usually be called in young children’s games.) When the referee stops play by blowing his whistle for a minor foul, the opposing team is awarded an indirect free kick. A goal cannot be scored directly from an indirect free kick. The ball must be played by a player other than the one taking the indirect kick, before a legal goal can be scored. Misconduct - There are two kinds of misconduct: • When an action results in a caution or a “yellow card” from the referee. A referee may warn a player to improve his conduct before a caution is issued. • When an action results in a player being ejected from the game, a “red card”. The referee has the authority to “red card” coaches or spectators because of misconduct or interference of the game.

LAW 13 - Free Kick :

LAW 13 - Free Kick There are two type of free kicks: Direct and Indirect. The types of fouls that result in a free kick are described in LAW 12. Direct Free Kick: On a direct free kick, the ball may be kicked directly into the goal for a score by the player taking the kick. The direct free kick is taken at the spot where the foul occurred, unless it is within the penalty box. Then a penalty kick is awarded.

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Indirect Free Kick: A goal can be scored only if the ball is touched by one or more players from either team, after it is kicked into play and before it enters the goal. There are a few rules that are followed on a free kick, they are: • The referee will signal an indirect free kick by putting one arm straight up into the air. • The ball must be stationary when it is kicked. • The team taking a free kick is entitled to have all opponents at least 10 yards from the ball when the free kick is taken. • The kicker may kick the ball if the opponents are closer than 10 yards if he wishes .

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• The kicker may ask the referee to move the opponents back 10 yards from the ball. The kicker must then wait until the referee blows his whistle before taking the free kick. • If a free kick is taken within 10 yards of the opponent’s goal, opposing players may stand on their own goal line between the goal posts. • A free kick by the defending team within its own goal area may be taken from any point within the half of the goal area in which the free kick was awarded. • An indirect free kick by the attacking team within the defending teams goal area is taken on the six yard line at the point nearest to where the foul was committed. (The six yard line is the line that outlines the goal area). • The player taking the free kick must not play the ball again after it has been kicked into play until another player, from either team, has touched the ball.

LAW 14 - Penalty Kick :

LAW 14 - Penalty Kick A penalty kick is awarded when a defender commits a penal or major foul with the penalty area. The team that was fouled is given a penalty kick from the penalty mark. All players except the goalkeeper must remain outside the penalty area and penalty arc until the kick is taken. The defending goalkeeper must stand on the goal line, between the goal posts and is not allowed to move until the ball is kicked. If the goalkeeper moves and the penalty shot does not score, then the penalty kick is retaken. Encroachment is when a player enters the penalty area or penalty arc before the ball is kicked. If a defender encroaches, then a scoring shot counts, a non-scoring shot is retaken. If an attacker encroaches, a scoring shot is disallowed and the kick is retaken. If the shot was non-scoring then the defending team gets an indirect free kick or a goal kick depending on where the ball is when the referee blows his whistle. If both teams encroach, the penalty kick is retaken whether it was a scoring shot or not. The penalty kick must go forward and cannot be played again by the kicker until another player has touched the ball.

LAW 15 - Throw-in :

LAW 15 - Throw-in A throw-in is taken to restart a game after the ball goes out of play over the touchline. A throw- in is taken by a player from the team, which did not touch the ball last. The player throwing the ball in must have both feet on the ground and both hands on the ball over his head. Both feet must remain on or behind the touchline. The thrower must throw the ball with equal strength from both hands from the back of the head and over the top of the head. The thrower must not play the ball again until another player from either team has touched the ball. A player cannot score a goal directly from a throw-in. A player in the offside position receiving the ball directly from a throw-in is not offside.

LAW 16- Goal Kick :

LAW 16- Goal Kick The box located directly in front of the goal is ca11e1 the goal area. When the attacking teari last touches the ball before it crosses over the goal line, the defending team is awarded a goal kick. A goal kick is taken by any player on the defending team. The ball must be played from within the half of the goal area on the side of the field where the ball went out of play. The opposing team must remain outside of the penalty area until the ball completely leaves the goal area. The goal kick is played again if the ball does not leave the penalty area, if the ball crosses the goal line before leaving the penalty area or if the ball is played again by a player from either team before it leaves the penalty area. The kicker may not play the ball again until another player from either team touches the ball. A player in the offside position receiving the ball directly from a goal kick is not offside

LAW 17- Corner Kick :

LAW 17- Corner Kick If a ball goes over the goal line and is last touched by the defending team, the attacking teams is awarded a corner kick. The corner kick is taken from within the corner arc on the side of the field where the ball went out of play. The corner kick may be taken by any player on the attacking team. The kicker is allowed to score a goal by kicking the ball directly into the goal. The opponents must be 10 yards back from the ball on a corner kick. The kicker is not allowed to play the ball again until a player from either team touches the ball. A player in the offside position receiving the ball directly from a corner kick is not offside.

Field and equipments :

Field and equipments The field is rectangular with a maximum dimension of 110mts x 75mts and a minimum dimension of 100mts x 64mts. The field is marked with distinctive lines (not more than 5 inches in width), the longer boundary lines being called the touch lines and shorter lines the goal lines. A halfway line is marked out across the field of play. The center of the field is indicated by a suitable mark and a circle with a 9.15m radius marked round it. The Goal Goal is a pair of posts linked by a cross bar, forming a space into which the ball has to be sent to score. The goals must be equidistant from the corner flags. The width and depth of the goal posts and cross bars should not exceed 12cms. The goal posts and the cross bars will have the same width. Nets are attached to the posts, cross bars and ground behind the goals. Goal posts and cross bars must be made of wood or metal. The goal posts should be painted white.

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Goal Line There is a line between the posts of a goal called goal line which is extended from the end boundary of the field of play. The goal line is marked with same width as the depth of the goal posts and the cross bar so that the goal line and the goal posts will conform to the same interior and exterior edges. The Goal Area At each end of the field of play two lines are drawn at right angles to the goal line, 6 yards from each goal post. These is extend into the field of play for a distance of 6yds and is joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. Each of the spaces enclosed by these lines and the goal line are called a goal area.

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The Penalty Area The ground in front of the goal is called Penalty area. It is marked with the two lines at each end of the field of play at right angles to the goal lines, 18yds from each goal posts. These are extend into the field of play for a distance of 18yds and are joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. Each of the spaces enclosed by these lines and the goal line is called a penalty area. A suitable mark is made within each penalty area, 12yds from the mid point of the goal line, measured along an un-drawn line at right angles. These are the penalty kick marks. From each penalty kick mark an arc of a circle having a radius of 10yds, is drawn outside the penalty area . The Corner Area From each corner of the field a quarter circle, having a radius of 1yd is drawn inside the field of play. A flag is posted at each corner.

Players equipment :

Players equipment The Ball The ball is spherical. The outer casing is of leather or other approved materials. The circumference of the ball should not be more than 27-28 inches. The weight of the ball at the start of the game must be within 14-16oz. The ball should not be changed during the game unless authorised by the referee. Other equipments The basic equipments of a player consist of a jersey or shirt, shorts, stockings, shin guards and footwear. Shin guards which is covered entirely by the stockings, is made of a suitable material like rubber or plastic. The players shall not wear anything which is dangerous to another player.


IMPORTANT TOURNAMNTS FIFA OR World cup, Euro cup, Club league, Olympics, Durand cup, Federation cup, National league, Santosh trophy, CBSE national, National games IMPORTANT VENUES Wembley stadium, Black health stadium, Brockland stadium, Salt Lake stadium, Ambedkar stadium, Jawahar lal nehru stadium, Guru gobind singh stadium, Chidambaram stadium, Shiva ji park, Nehru stadium, Guru nanak stadium, SAIL sport complex, Railways Sport complex


TERMINOLOGY Attacker: A player whose job is to play the ball forward towards the opponent's goal area to create a scoring opportunity. Back Heel: A ball kicked using the back (heel) of the foot. Back Pass: A pass that a player makes back toward their own goal, usually made back to the goalkeeper. This is often a defensive move to restart a new phase of play. Ball Carrier: The player in possession of the ball. Bending the Ball: Striking the ball off-center so that it travels in a curved path, ideally for shots at goal.

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Bicycle Kick: A spectacular move in which a player jumps in the air in a backflip motion, kicking the ball backward over their head. The name comes from action which mimics their legs moving as if pedaling a bicycle. Center Spot: The spot marked at the center of the field from which the kickoff is made. Confederation: Organization responsible for football in their region (see acronyms ) Corner Flag: The flag marking each of the four corners of the field. Corner Kick: A free kick taken from the corner of the field by an attacker. The corner kick is awarded when the ball has passed over the goal line after last touching a defensive player. The shot is taken from the corner nearest to where the ball went out. Cross : A pass played across the face of a goal . Defender: A player whose job is to stop the opposition attacking players from goal scoring.

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Direct Free Kick: A free kick in which a goal may be scored by the player taking the free kick. Dribble: Keeping control of the ball while running. Dummy Run: A run by a player without the ball, to lure defenders away from the ball carrier. Far Post: The goalpost farthest from the ball. FIFA: The acronym used for the Federation Internationale de Football Association, the world governing body for the game of association football, which is based in Switzerland. Football: The term used for soccer in Europe and other countries outside of North America and Australia. Foul: Any illegal play. Free Kick: A kick awarded to an opposition player when an player has committed a foul. Free kicks can be either direct or indirect. Futsal: version of Fottball played indoors

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Give and Go: (also known as a 1-2) When a player passes the ball to a teammate, who immediately one-touch passes the ball back to the first player. Goal Area: The rectangular area in front of the goal in which the goalkeeper may handle the ball. It is also known as the 18-yard box because of its dimensions. Goal Kick: A goal kick is awarded to the defending team when the ball is played over the goal line by the attacking team. It can taken by any player though it is normally taken by the goalkeeper. Goal Line: The two boundary lines located at each end of the field. Goal Mouth: The area in front of the goal. Goalkeeper: The specialized player who is the last line of defense, who is allowed to control the ball with his hands when in the goal area.

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Header: Using of the head to pass or control the ball. Indirect Free Kick: A free kick awarded to a player from which a goal may not be scored directly. Inswinger : A kick that curves in toward the goal. Kickoff: The kickoff is taken from the center spot at the start of play at the beginning of each half and after a goal has been scored. Man to Man Marking: A defensive system where defenders are designated one attacking player to track continuously. Midfielder: The playing position for players that are responsible for linking play between attackers and defenders. Nearpost : The goalpost nearest the ball. Obstruction: Causing obstruction, which is blocking an opponent with the body, is penalized by awarding an indirect free kick to the opposition.

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Offside Trap: A technique used by defenders to put attacking players in an offside position, by moving quickly away from their own goal to leave attackers offside. Offside: A player is in an offside position if he is nearer to his opponent's goal line than both the ball and the second-to-last opponent. This does not apply if the players is is on their half of the field. An indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team at the place where the offside occurred. One-Touch Pass: A pass in which the ball is played on with a player's first touch. Out Swinger: A kick that swerves away from the goal. Penalty Spot: The marked spot 12 yards from the goal line from which a penalty kick is taken. Penalty: A penalty kick is awarded when a foul has been committed inside the penalty area in front of the goal. A penalty is taken by one player opposed only by the goal keeper. Pitch: The soccer field of play.

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Red Card: A red card is issued to a player when that player has committed a serious infraction or has been issued with two yellow cards within the same game. The red card held up by the referee to signal that a player is being sent off. The player sent off cannot be replaced. Referee: The official who is in charge of the game. Shot: A kick, header, or any intended deflection of the ball toward a goal by a player attempting to score a goal. Sliding Tackle: A tackle in which the defender slides along the surface of the field of play before making one-footed contact with the ball. Striker: An attacking player whose job is to finish attacking plays by scoring a goal. Sweeper: A defensive player whose job is to roam behind the other defenders. A sweeper has no specific marking duties and is the last line of defense before the goalkeeper.

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Tackle: To take the ball away from the opponent using the feet. Through Pass: A pass played past defenders into free space to allow a teammate to run onto the ball. Throw-In: The ball is thrown in after the ball has crossed the touch line. A player taking a throw in must have both feet on or behind the touch line, must maintain contact with the ground, and must use a two-handed throw made from behind the head. A goal cannot be score directly from a throw-in. Toe Poke: Use of the toe to strike the ball. Touch Line: The line that defines the outer edge of the longer sides of the field of play. Trapping the Ball: Controlling the ball with the sole of the foot.

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Volley: Striking the ball in mid-air with either foot. Wingers: Attackers who play on the wings/flanks of the field. Yellow Card: A yellow card is held up by a referee to signal a caution for a minor infringement. Zone Defense: A defensive system where defenders mark a designated area of the field of play instead of tracking players across the field.

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