AlcoholChronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism : AlcoholChronic Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Presentation Key : Presentation Key = more detailed information noted in handout
= health information
= highlighted facts that should be reviewed Part IAcute Alcohol Use : Part IAcute Alcohol Use The Right MixWhat makes Alcohol : The Right MixWhat makes Alcohol Ethyl alcohol - The product of fermentation of natural sugars.
(Heated and cooled) The Flow of Alcohol Thru History : The Flow of Alcohol Thru History Egyptians created 1st brewery Distilled Liquor used medically
During Middle Ages in Italy Consumption & Pharmacology of Alcohol : Consumption & Pharmacology of Alcohol Standard Drink
= 5 oz wine
= 12 oz beer
= 1.5 oz shot Binge Drink
Oxidation Slippery Slope between Standard & Excessive Drinking : Slippery Slope between Standard & Excessive Drinking Effects of AlcoholPhysical and Mental : Effects of AlcoholPhysical and Mental Toxic response
1) Warmth and redness
2) heat loss
3) Death by asphyxiation due to vomiting
1) Temporary change in reabsorbtion of water thru Kidney
2) Hormonal change in ADH during toxic alcohol consumption can produce swollen feet, hands, and fingers
1) Abnormal rate of heart contractions can effect the flow of blood to the brain and other vital organs or lead to cardiac arrest.
2) Scarring of heart muscle permanently affects how blood is pumped to heart
1) Can lead to sleep deprivation and nightmares Effects on Pregnancy : Effects on Pregnancy Any consumption greatly increases the risk of retardation in the development of the fetus.
It is estimated that about 12% of pregnant women consume alcohol. This approximates that one in eight fetuses are exposed to alcohol in utero. Medical Cocktails and Hangovers : Medical Cocktails and Hangovers Alcohol will intensify the affects of licit and illicit drugs
Hangovers occur 4 to12 hours after heavy drinking Hangover Symptoms include: headache, thirst, fatigue, and nausea : Hangover Symptoms include: headache, thirst, fatigue, and nausea Intoxication Produces : Intoxication Produces 1) Blackouts
2) Diminished or poor driving skills
3) Violence and aggressive behavior
4) Poor sexual
performance/ Lack of desire Below is a female blacked out due to binge drinking : Below is a female blacked out due to binge drinking It’s not all bad News IF done Responsibly : It’s not all bad News IF done Responsibly 1 to 2 drinks a day reduces the risk of coronary disease
Moderate consumption also reduces risk for
3) Rheumatoid arthritis
Strategies for responsible drinking Please Drink Responsibly!!! : Please Drink Responsibly!!! Part IIChronic Alcohol Use : Part IIChronic Alcohol Use Statistically Speaking….. : Statistically Speaking….. 1 in every 13 adults abuse alcohol or are alcoholics.
Almost ½ Americans report that they have one or more close relatives with a drinking problem.
Yearly 100,000 deaths nationwide are wholly or partially attributed to drinking.
Alcoholism is the 3rd leading cause of death nationwide
Alcoholism reduces the life expectancy of alcoholics by 10 to 12 years. According to NIAAA, each year, alcohol-related problems cost society approximately $100 billion. Five basic life problems that are tied to the consumption of alcohol. : Five basic life problems that are tied to the consumption of alcohol. 1) Preoccupation with drinking : Drinking dominates life and becomes therapeutic
2) Emotional Problem: Depression and CNS
3) Vocational, Social, and Family Problems: Disrupts daily routine and causes violent behavior
4) Physical Problems: Brain damage and Liver Disease
5) Hiding the Problems: Denial and Enabling (Two basic syndromes) IAW DSMIV-TR: : (Two basic syndromes) IAW DSMIV-TR: 1. Abuse - A syndrome characterized primarily by the continued use of alcohol despite the drinker's knowledge of having a persistent physical problem or some social or occupational difficulty.
2. Alcohol Dependence - A syndrome in which alcohol abuse involves a variety of significant physical, psychological, social, and behavioral problems.
(Refer to page 249 for more information) Hospitalization after Alcohol Poisoning : Hospitalization after Alcohol Poisoning Biological Effects of Chronic Alcohol Abuse : Biological Effects of Chronic Alcohol Abuse A. Tolerance and
B. Liver Disease
C. Cardiovascular Problems
E. Dementia and Wernicke-
F. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Effects of Alcohol on the Liver : Effects of Alcohol on the Liver Normal infant brain compared to FAS : Normal infant brain compared to FAS Patterns of Chronic Alcohol Abuse : Patterns of Chronic Alcohol Abuse A. The Demographics of Alcoholism
B. Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly
C. The Family Dynamics of Alcoholism: A
D. Children of an Alcoholic Parent or Parents Family Ties to Alcoholism : Family Ties to Alcoholism Type 1 Alcoholics – developed problem drinking later in the life due to genetic predisposition toward alcoholism; generally functions well in society
Type 2 Alcoholics – developed alcoholism earlier in life and has significant antisocial patterns of behavior
Concordance Rate – The likelihood that one member of a twin or family relation will have a condition if the other one has it. Alcoholism a Disease : Alcoholism a Disease In 1957, the AMA defined
alcoholism as a disease, and
numerous other health
organizations have adopted a
Legal issues – Is an alcoholic
legally absolved of a crime or
legally obligated because
he/she is afflicted with this
disease? Approaches to Treatment for Alcoholism : Approaches to Treatment for Alcoholism 1) Biologically Based Treatments
a. Disulfiram (Antabuse) – A medication that causes severe physical reactions and discomfort when combined with alcohol.
b. Naltrexone (ReVia) and Nalmefene (Revex) – A long-lasting opiate antagonist for the treatment of alcoholism.
c. Acamprosate (Campral) – A GABA-related drug for the treatment of alcoholism.
d. Ondansetron (Zofran) – A serotonin-related drug for the treatment of alcoholism.
2) Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
3) SMART Recovery (Self Management And Recovery Training)– An alcoholism
and other drug-abuse treatment program emphasizing a non-spiritual philosophy
and a greater sense of personal control within the abuser. Alcoholism in the Workplace : Alcoholism in the Workplace Employee Assistance Program (EAP)
Corporate or institutional programs for the workers or employees to help them with alcohol or other drug-abuse problems.
Set up by established unions within the organization and tailored for union members. References : References 1. (Leventhal, 2010)