COCONUT Cultivation

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An Assignment on CULTIVATION PRACTICES OF COCONUT:

An Assignment on CULTIVATION PRACTICES OF COCONUT Mr. Ganga Datt Awasthi

Table of contents:

Table of contents Introduction Origin Composition and uses General morphology Species and cultivar Eco-physiological requirements Propagating materials Nutrient management Water management Weed management and inter cropping Harvesting Yield Major Insect pest and disease of coconut

Introduction:

Introduction The coconut tree ( Cocos nucifera ), is a member of the family Arecaceae . Generic name derived from Spanish word “coco” means monkey face or skull/head. Every part of the tree is useful to human life for some purpose or the other. Hence, the coconut palm is endearingly called ‘ Kalpavriksha ’ meaning the tree of heaven. The copra obtained by drying the kernel of coconut is the richest source of vegetable oil containing 65 to 70 per cent oil. Coconut have chromosome number 32(2n=32,x=16) and edible portion of coconut is endosperm with fruit type drupe. Origin and distribution Origin of coconut is believed to be somewhere in South–East Asia, most probably in Malaysia or Indonesia or Indian ocean. Having originated from south East Asia it later moved further America, West Indies, Caribbean sea, Portugal, Arab on the African coast.

Area and Production in India:

Area and Production in India Year Area (‘000 ha) Production (‘000 Mt) Productivity (kg/ha) 2009-2010 1895.20 10824.00 5711 2010-2011 1895.90 10840.00 5718 2011-2012 2070.70 14940.00 7215 India rank 3 rd in the world on production of coconut after Indonesia and Philippines but India rank 1 st in the productivity in the world. Kerala share coconut production highest(45%) followed by Tamil Nadu(22%), Karnataka(12%) in India. Source: CDB, India

Nutritive value and Uses of Coconut:

Nutritive value and Uses of Coconut The following products of coconut are useful to human being.  Coconut water   :  It increases bold circulation in the kidneys and cause profuse dieresis.  2)The Wet Meat or Kernel:  The kernel is an important article of food being used in culinary  purpose. 3) Desiccated Coconut: It is dried out disintegrated coconut meat. It has great demand in confectionary and other good industries. 4)Coconut oil  and Oil cake : Dried copra gives 60 to 67% oil and 33-40% oil cake. The coconut oil is in great demand for edible purposes, for soap making toilet   preparation. The oil cake is used to feed cattle and poultry . Edible portion Fresh Kernel Dry kernel Nut water Protein 4.1% 8.9% 0.2% Fat 37.3% 67% 0.1% Carbohydrate 7.9% 12.4% 5.6%

Botany: :

Botany: Palm is a tall , s tately unbranched ,growing to the height of 12m to 24m.The stem is marked by ring of leaf scar which are not prominent at the base. The palm has adventitious root system having numerous thick roots from base of the stem almost throughout lifetimes and roots are localized, generally at the lowermost region of stem which has been termed as “bole.” Leaf are large,long , pinnatisect , borne on the crown. Palm is monocious with few female flower. Inflorescence is spadix which is about 1.2 to 1.8 m long, stout, erect, straw or orange colored and simply branched. Fruit is large, one seeded drupe.The outer layer of pericarp are thick and fibrous.The inner layer(endocarp) is hard and thin testa cohering to endocarp is lined with white albunious endosperm enclosing large cavity partially filled with sweet fluid.

Species and Cultivar Species: The genus cocus is a monotypic one have only species of Cocus nucifera. Cultivars: Coconut have two distinct cultivars , the tall and the dwarf. :

Species and Cultivar Species: The genus cocus is a monotypic one have only species of Cocus nucifera . Cultivars: Coconut have two distinct cultivars , the tall and the dwarf. Hybrid: DXT, Kalpasankara , Kalpashree , Anand Ganga,BHC-1,Kera Hybrid Eco-physiological requirement Climate : It is essentially a tropical plant growing mostly between 20 o N 20 o S latitudes. Rainfall of about 2000 mm per year, well distributed throughout, is ideal for proper growth and maximum production. It grows well at the range of temperature 22°c -32°c. Tall cultivars Dwarf cultivars West Coast Wall, Lakshadweep Ordinary, Lakshadweep Micro, Kappadam tall,Kampura,Spicata,Andaman ordinary tall,Laccadive ordinary tall Dwarf Green, Dwarf orange, Chowgat Green Dwarf, Malayan Green dwarf, Mayalan Orange Dwarf, Gangabondam Dwarf,

Soil: Coconut is adaptable to a wide range of soil condition from light sandy soils to heaviest clays with a PH ranging from 5.2 to 8.Best soil are deep, friable and loamy and heavier soil require good drainage. :

Soil: Coconut is adaptable to a wide range of soil condition from light sandy soils to heaviest clays with a PH ranging from 5.2 to 8.Best soil are deep, friable and loamy and heavier soil require good drainage. Propagating materials: In coconut propagation is done by seed. Vegetative propagation is not commercially exploited . First we have to select seed nut and their plantation on nursery and finally transplanted on main field. Following steps are involved for propagation of coconut. Mother Palm Selection: Good mother plants is identified by the following traits: a)Crown should be spherical or semi spherical for selection & drooping or erect crown should be avoided b) High yielding mother palms giving not less than 100 nuts/palm/annum c)Palm should have 30-40 fully opened leaves and 12-15 bunches with a high setting female flower. d)Regular bearer & should be in the age group of 25-50 years. e) Palm should be free from pest and diseases. f) Husked nuts should weigh not less than 600 g & Mean copra content of 150 g per nut or more.

Maturity of Seed Nut::

Maturity of Seed Nut: The mature nuts are harvested when at least one nut in the oldest bunch starts becoming dry. In Tall varieties, it takes 11-12 months to become a matured seed nut whereas in dwarfs, nuts will mature in 10-11 months after emergence of the inflorescence. They produce a resonant and ringing sound when hit while Immature nuts will produce a dull sound. Selection of Seed Nuts: Harvest at the month of Feb.-Aug. in Tamil Nadu and Dec.- May in Karela to get maximum germination. Tall varieties are sown one or two months after collection whereas dwarfs should be sown immediately after harvest (within 10 to 15 days). For more quality of seedling seed nut are air cured and followed by sand cure for 2 month.

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Nursery Area: Select nursery area in a well drained plot with coarse texture soil near water source for irrigation. Nursery can be raise in the open space with artificial shade or in the adult coconut garden. Seed Nut Planting: Plant seed nuts in a long and narrow bed at a spacing of 30 x 30 cm either horizontally or vertically in deep trenches with 20-25 cm depth. Five rows of nuts may be planted in each bed accommodating 50 nuts per row. Selection of seedling: Select the seedling about 9-12 month after planting. W ell germinated seedling good girth at collar early splitting of leaflet are good.Seedling should be free from pest disease and healthy Root system.

Slide 11:

Seed to seedling Healthy rooting Planting system Spacing 1.Triangular: 7.6m 2. Square: 7.6x7.6m, 8x8m, 9x9 m 3. Single hedge: 6.5m in rows - 9m between rows 4. Double Hedge: 6.5 to 6.5m in rows - 9m between pairs of rows

Planting Dug pit size of 3’ x 3' x 3'. In the pits, sprinkle Lindane 1.3 % D to prevent white ant damage.  Fill the pit to a height of two feet (60 cm) with FYM, red earth and sand mixed in equal proportions. At the center of the pit, remove the soil mixture and plant the seedling after removing all the roots.  :

Planting Dug pit size of 3’ x 3' x 3'. In the pits, sprinkle Lindane 1.3 % D to prevent white ant damage.  Fill the pit to a height of two feet (60 cm) with FYM, red earth and sand mixed in equal proportions. At the center of the pit, remove the soil mixture and plant the seedling after removing all the roots.  Irrigation: The irrigation requirement varies according to the soil type and climatic condition. Generally, an adult palm requires 600 to 800 litres of water once in four to seven days. Irrigate in basins of 1.8m radius and 10-20 cm depth. when once started irrigation should be continued regularly and systematically tion . Drip irrigation in coconut is the best method of irrigation in the coconut which saves water, money and labor. Drought management and soil moisture conservation a. Mulching with coconut husks/leaves/coir pith  b. Burial of coconut husk or coir pith

Manuring: Apply manures and fertilizers in circular basins of 1.8 m from the base of the palm, incorporate and irrigate. The fertilizers may applied in two split doses, in June – July and in December to January.:

Manuring : Apply manures and fertilizers in circular basins of 1.8 m from the base of the palm, incorporate and irrigate. The fertilizers may applied in two split doses, in June – July and in December to January. Age(years) FYM(Kg/tree) Urea(kg/tree) Super phosphate(kg/tree) Murate of potash(kg/tree) 1 10 0.308 0.500 0.480 2 20 0.616 1.000 0.960 3 30 0.924 1.500 1.440 4 40 1.23 2.000 1.920 5 th year and onwards 50 1.23 2.000 1.920 Organic Recycling Anyone of the green manure crops can be grown and plowed in situ at the time of flowering. Coir pith compost or vermi -compost can be used as manure

Weed management: :

Weed management: The inter-space in the coconut garden has to be ploughed twice in a year in June - July and December - January. For the broad-leaved weeds, pre-emergence spraying of atrazine @1.0 kg a.i ./ ha for the control of grasses and sedges. Post emergence spraying of glyphosate @ 10 ml and 20 g ammonium sulphate / litre of water. Inter cropping: Inter/ mioxed crop is selected based on the climatic requtrment of he inter/mixed crop. a.Below 7 year of age: Any suitable annual crop for particular soil and climatic condition may be raised upto 5 year of planting.eg:Banana , Sunflower,Groundnut,Turmeric etc. b.7-20 years of age: Green manure crops and fodder crops like Napier grassand guinea grass. c. Above 20 year:Intercropping can be done based on the sunlight transmission on its canopy.Annual,Biennials and Perenniels plant can be grown.

Harvesting::

Harvesting: Twelve months old nuts are harvested at the interval of 30-45 days for seed as well as copra making and culinary purposes.For household use keep the nuts in vertical direction. However, for tender nut purposes 7 to 8 months old nuts are harvested. The nuts can be harvested using coconut climbers. Nuts which are 11 months old give fiber of good quality.In case of tall the nuts harvested for seed purpose can be stored for 2 to 3 months period before sowing, whereas in case of dwarfs and hybrids, nuts should be sown with in a period of 10 –15 days of harvest. Yield: S.No Variety Nut yield( Nos /tree/year) 1 Hybrid 100 2 Tall 60-80 3 Dwarf 70-90

Pest and Disease:

Pest and Disease Pest Symptoms/Damage Control Rhinoceros Beetle ( Orycetes rhinoceros) The adult beetle bores into the unopened fronds and spathes . Attacked fronds when fully opened show characteristic geometric cuts Spraying 0.01% Carbaryl (50WP) in the breeding sites of the beetle help destroy the larva.  Biological control using the virus Baculovirus oryctus (release 10 - 15 virus infected beetles in 1 ha)  Red Palm weevil ( Rhynchophorus ferrugineus ) Presence of holes on the stem, oozing out of viscous brown fluid and extrusion of chewed up fibres through the hole.  Practice clean cultivation and avoid the injury to the stem.Use pheromone trap for attack of insect. Inject attacked palms with 1% Carbaryl (20gm/ litre ).

Cont…..:

Cont….. Black headed Caterpillar ( Opisina arenosella ) They eat the green matter of the leaves and live under surface of leaflets. Release of parasitoids like Gorriozus nephantidis , Elasmus nephantidis and Brachimeria nosatoi.Spray the under surface of leaves with 0.02% Dichlorvos ( Dichlorvos 100EC). Coreid  Bug ( Paradasynus rostratus  ) The attacked buttons do not develop resulting in immature nut fall. The nuts if developed may become barren. Spraying has to be done 3 times a year. Apply 0.1% Carbaryl on the inflorescence after the receptive phase of the female flower. Rats Attack tender nuts resulting in immature nut fall. Use poison bait with zinc phosphate.Use rat traps. Entry of rats on to the trunk can be prevented by fixing mechanical barriers upto 2m height from ground level using 40cm sized G.I. sheets.

Slide 18:

 Bud Rot: Phytophthora palmivora The earlier symptom is the yellowing of one or two younger leaves. Black spots appear on spindle leaves. In the later stages the spindle withers and drops down.  Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture on the crown of the neighbouring palms as a prophylatic measure.  Spray with 1% Bordeaux mixture during May and September if the disease occur frequently. Stem blending: Ceratocystis paradoxa and Chalara paradoxa Exudation of reddish brown liquid through cracks developing on the stem.Decaying of tissue at the bleeding point and development of big holes inside the trunk. Avoid any mechanical injury to the stem.To avoid the spread of disease ont o upper trunk, root feeding with 5% calixin may be adopted on May- June,sept .- oct. and jan .- Feb. Thanjavur wilt ( Ganoderma lucidium ) Decay of root system,browning of outer leaves,appearance of bleeding patches on stem and arrest fruit set. Apply 5 kg of neem cake per year,providing organic matter and irrigation.

References :

References Thampan , P.K., 1988. Glimpses of coconut industry in India, Coconut Development Board, Cochin. Dendy DAY, Grimwood BE., 1973. Coconut Processing for the production of coconut oil and coconut protein food and feed products. Oleagineux , 28 (2)93-98. Kamaladevi , C.V.,1983. coconut research and development, wiley eastern limited, New Delhi Satyabalan k.,1995. Indian coconut j., 8: 89-90 Bose, T.K., Mitra,Sk and Rathore ( Eds ). 1998. Fruita Tropical and subtropical, Naya Udhyaog Chadha K.L. & Rethian p. ( Eds ) 1991. Advance Horticulture vol. IX-X. Plantation Crops and Spices Malhotra Publ;.House Kumar N.A., Khader p, Rangaswami and Irunppan I. 2000. Introductionb to spice , platation crops and Aromatic plants, Oxford and IBH TNAU Agriportal http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/horti_plantation%20crops_coconut.html Coconut research Institute Srilanka http://www.cri.gov.lk/web/ Coconut Development Board India http://coconutboard.nic.in/package.htm Cargill Indonesia http://www.cargill.com/connections/farming-in-indonesia/coconuts/index.jsp

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