food additives

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food additives

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Food Additives classification , function and safety measures SHELKE G.N M.tech Food and agriculture process engineering

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Food additives are substances which are added to food which either improve the flavor, texture, colour or chemical preservatives, taste, appearance or function as processing aid. Food Additives-Introduction To provide nutrition To maintain product quality and freshness To make foods appealing To aid in the processing and preparation of foods

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Another benefit of food additives is that consumers can be offered a wider choice of foods. Many processed foods contain additives. Some common examples are ice cream and bread. Many food additives occur naturally, such as red colour from beetroot (Beet red), and purple colour from grape skins (anthocyanins ). Some food additives found in nature can be manufactured, for example, ascorbic acid. Other additives are manufactured but not found in nature, such as aspartame, which is used to replace sugar.

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Code numbers Most food additives have code numbers. The numbers listed in this are part of an international numbering system. Code numbers use less space on labels than names of additives. They also help avoid the confusion caused by some additives having more than one name, or additives with similar names.

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Need for Food Additives: -It keeps food fresh and reduces the risk of food poisoning. - It helps improve the nutritional value of food. - It can replace the colour thats lost during the food processing. - It can increase the flavour, smell and taste. - Add more flavour to food. - Makes the food product better looking. - It makes foods last longer - It improves the consistancy of foods.

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COLOURS Colours make foods look more attractive. They are added to help identify flavours. To make food look brighter. And to restore colour that may have been lost during processing. Classification & Function Over 3,000 different chemical compounds are used as food additives. They are categorized into different groups . 100 Curcumim or Turmeric 101 Riboflavin or Riboflavin 5’-phosphate sodium 102 Tartrazine 103 Alkanet or Alkannin 104 Quinoline yellow 110 Sunset yellow FCF 120 Cochineal or Carmines or Carminic acid Azorubine or Carmoisine 140 Chlorophyll

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Tartrazine is a yellow colouring. It makes some types of orange squash more orange in colour. Do we need it? Look at these bottles – one with and one without. Which would you buy? And which do you think would taste better? Some people react badly to tartrazine so some manufacturers have started to replace it with turmeric. Tartrazine is a yellow colouring. It makes some types of orange squash more orange in colour. would taste better? Some people react badly to tartrazine so some manufacturers have started to replace it with turmeric.

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PRESERVATIVES Preservatives are used to improve the safety of food. Controlling the growth of mould. Controlling bacteria and yeast that cause food to deteriorate. 200 Sorbic acid 201 Sodium sorbate 202 Potassium sorbate 203 Calcium sorbate 210 Benzoic acid 211 Sodium benzoate 212 Potassium benzoate 213 Calcium benzoate 220 Sulphur dioxide 221 Sodium sulphite

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ACIDITY REGULATORS Acidity regulators (including acids and alkalis) Adjust the acid or alkaline level in food. Maintain a sour or sharp taste. An acidified food can retard the growth of some microorganisms. 260 Acetic acid, glacial 263 Calcium acetate 264 Ammonium acetate 270 Lactic acid 296 Malic acid 325 Sodium lactate 326 Potassium lactate 328 Ammonium lactate 330 Citric acid 334 Tartaric acid 335 Sodium tartrate

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ANTIOXIDANTS Antioxidants help to stop oils and fats from deteriorating. They also slow down colour and flavour changes. F oods made using oils and fats can be kept for longer. 300 * Ascorbic acid 301* Sodium ascorbate 302 * Calcium ascorbate 303 * Potassium ascorbate 304 * Ascorbyl palmitate 307 * alpha - Tocopherol lemons Juice 307b * Tocopherols concentrate, mixed 308 gamma - Tocopherol 309 delta - Tocopherol

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ANTICAKING AGENTS Anticaking agents reduce the tendency of particles to stick together. That products like salt flow freely. 170* Calcium carbonate 341* Calcium phosphates 343* Magnesium phosphates 381* Ferric ammonium citrate 460 Cellulose, microcrystalline or powdered HUMECTANTS Humectants keep food moist and stop it from drying out. 325 Sodium lactate 326 Potassium lactate 350 Sodium malates 420 Sorbitol or sorbitol syrup sorbitol

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RAISING AGENTS Raising agents are used in bakery products to make them rise. FIRMING AGENTS Firming agents contribute to firmness of food. Interact with gelling agents to produce or strengthen a gel. 500 Sodium carbonate or Sodium bicarbonate 503 Ammonium bicarbonate or Ammonium hydrogen carbonate 575 Glucono delta-lactone 920 L-cysteine monohydrochloride 509* Calcium chloride 511* Magnesium chloride 516* Calcium sulphate 518* Magnesium sulphate 526 Calcium hydroxide

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FOAMING AGENTS Foaming agents maintain the uniform dispersion of gases in aerated food. FLAVOUR ENHANCERS Flavour enhancers improve the existing flavour and/or taste of food. GLAZING AGENTS Glazing agents help protect a food and make it look shiny. 465 Methyl ethyl cellulose 570 Stearic acid or fatty acid 620 L-glutamic acid 621 Monosodium L-glutamate or MSG Monopotassium L-glutamate 570 Stearic acid or fatty acid 901 Beeswax, white and yellow 903 Carnauba wax 904 Shellac

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PROPELLANTS Propellants are sealed under pressure in an aerosol food container. This enables an aerosol can to spray out its contents, e.g. cream in a can with a nozzle BULKING AGENTS Bulking agents contribute to the volume of a food without contributing significantly to its available energy. ANTIFOAMING AGENTS Antifoaming agents stop or reduce foaming. 290 Carbon dioxide 941 Nitrogen 942 Nitrous oxide 943a Butane 325 Sodium lactate 326 Potassium lactate 953 Isomalt 1505 Triethyl citrate 1521 Polyethylene glycol

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ENZYMES Enzymes describe a group of substances that may have diverse functions. For example lipases assist in cheesemaking where milk is broken down into curds and whey. Others can act as a stabiliser or preservative. SWEETENERS Sweeteners replace the sweetness normally provided by sugars in foods. Some are intense sweeteners and do not contribute significantly to the available energy of foods. 1100 alpha-Amylase 1101 Proteases 1104 Lipases 1105 Lysozyme 420 Sorbitol or sorbitol syrup 421 Mannitol 950 Acesulphame potassium 951 Aspartame

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EMULSIFIERS, STABILISERS, THICKENERS AND GELLING AGENTS Emulsifiers : are used to ensure that mixtures of oil and water based ingredients stay mixed together . Stabilisers : make it possible for two or more ingredients (which usually don’t stay mixed) to stay together. Thickeners : thicken food and ensure uniform consistency. These include modified starches. Gelling agents : modify food texture through the formation of a gel. This helps food to set. 181 Tannic acid or tannins Pectin 331 Sodium citrates 332 Potassium citrates 333* Calcium citrate Potassium tartrate or Potassium acid tartrate 337 Potassium sodium tartrate 339* Sodium phosphates

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MISCELLANEOUS ADDITIVES Some additives cannot be classified by one of the classes listed. 519* Cupric sulphate (mineral salt) 577 Potassium gluconate (sequestrant) 579* Ferrous gluconate (colour retention agent)

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Advantages it's easily available . cost is not much. it's don't take much time to prepared food. you can eat every where. when home made food don't available, you can easily buy it form street. people satisfied with the food. people save time from make food. people who haven't enough time to make food then they can buy from street easily.

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Disadvantages it's not a hygienic food. people fall ill after taking it food. it invite obesity. many time people get steal food. people get sieve ring kind of health problems.

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When Food Additives should not be used Baby food and invalid food; Disguise the use of faulty processing and handling techniques. Mask spoilage or bad quality of food . .

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Safety of a Food Additive : The limit should be established with due importance to following factors: a. The estimated level of consumption of the food product by the consume world for which the additive is proposed. b . Finding out minimum levels which would produce significant deviation from physiological behavior. c . An adequate margin of safety to reduce any hazard to a minimum. d . Legal control over the use of food additives. This can be accomplished only when a list of permitted additives exists with specified safe levels and toxic levels. e . Stringent labeling on foods i.e., declaring the usage of additives in food and their quantities. f . Employing trained food inspectors, food control laboratories and reliable analytical methods are of utmost important

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