Total Quality Management

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The history of quality is as old as industry. In olden days, The Kind Hamurabi of Babylon introduced the concept of building quality by declaring as follows

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Total quality management : 

Presented by : M.Ganesh Murugan Total quality management

Historical Review : 

Historical Review The history of quality is as old as industry. In olden days, The Kind Hamurabi of Babylon introduced the concept of building quality by declaring as follows.  “… If the building falls into pieces and the owner is killed, then the builder should also be sentences to death. If the owner’s children are killed, then the builders children should also be sentenced to death”.

Historical Review : 

Historical Review

What Is Total Quality Management? : 

What Is Total Quality Management? TOTAL – Made up of the whole QUALITY – Degree of excellence a product or service provides MANAGEMENT – Act , Manner of handling (or) Art

Defined as by ISO : 

Defined as by ISO TQM is the control of all transformation process of an organization to best satisfy customer needs in the most economical manner

Evolution of TQM : 

Evolution of TQM

Characteristics of TQM : 

Characteristics of TQM Customer Oriented Long term commitment Teamwork Leadership and continuous involvement of Top Management Continuous Improvement

Meaning of TQM : 

Meaning of TQM

Concepts of TQM : 

Concepts of TQM Top Management Commitment Focus on the customer – Goal is to identify and meet customer needs. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force – Employees are expected to seek out, identify, and correct quality problems. Continuous Improvement – A philosophy of never-ending improvement. Treating suppliers as partners – Quality concepts must extend to a company’s suppliers. Establishing performance measures for the processes Use of quality tools – Ongoing employee training in the use of quality tools.

12 principles of TQM : 

12 principles of TQM

Quality Gurus and their philosophies : 

Quality Gurus and their philosophies

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 1. Create and Publish the aims and purposes of the Organisation  Create and publish to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company (or) other organization. The management mush demonstrate constantly their commitment to this statement. The statement is a forever-changing document that requires input from every one.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 2. Learn the New Philosophy  The top management and everyone in the organisation should learn the new philosophy. Customer satisfaction must be the number one priority, because dissatisfied customers will not continue to purchase nonconforming products and services. The organization must concentrate on defect prevention rather than defect detection. Everyone in the organisation, including union, must be involved in the quality journey

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 3. Understand the purpose of inspection The purpose of inspection is to improve the process and reduce its cost. It should be understood by the management. Most of the time mass inspection is costly and unreliable. Wherever possible, it should be replaced by statistical methods. Every effort should be made to reduce and then eliminate acceptance sampling. Mass inspection is managing for failure and defect prevention is managing for success.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 4. Stop awarding business based on Price alone  The organization must stop awarding business based on the low price, because price has no meaning without quality.  The goal is to have single suppliers for each item to develop loyalty and trust and hence to provide improved products and service.  Purchasing agents and suppliers should be trained in Statistical Process Control. They must follow the materials throughout their life cycle in order to examine how customer expectations are affected.  Supplier should be given feed back regarding the quality.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. Management must take more responsibility to improve the quality and productivity continually and permanently and to reduce the cost. The focus should be on preventing errors before they happen. Variation is expected, but it should be reduced by a continual striving using control charts. Responsibilities should be assigned to teams to remove the causes of problems and continually improve the process

Deming wheel for continuous improvement : 

Deming wheel for continuous improvement

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 6. Institute Training  Management must allocate resources to train employees to perform their jobs in the best manner possible. Each employee must be trained in statistical methods and these methods should be used to monitor the need for further training.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 7. Teach and Institute leadership Supervisory skills should be improved by giving training in statistical methods and these 14 points should be insisted. Instead of having negative and fault finding attitude, supervisors should create a positive and supportive atmosphere. It is the management’s responsibility to teach and institute leadership quality in supervisors.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 8. Drive out fear, Create Trust and Create a Climate for Innovation  Fear is caused by a lack of job security, possible physical dangers, performance appraisals, ignorance of organizational goals, poor supervision and not knowing job. Driving fear out of the workplace leads to success. Management should provide adequate training, good supervision, and proper tools to do the job as well as to remove physical harms. When people are working without fear, trust is created and they will work for the general good of the organization. Hence, in this Climate, people will create new ideas for improvement.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 9. Optimize the efforts of teams, groups and Staff areas. The efforts of teams, groups and staff areas should be optimized by the management to achieve the aims and purposes of the organisation. Barriers exist internally among the levels of management, among departments, within departments and among shifts. Externally, barriers exist between the organisations and its customers and suppliers. These barriers are existing because of poor communication, ignorance of the organisations mission, competition, fear and personal grudges (or) jealousies. To break down the barriers, the management should have a long-term perspective. The attitudes should be changed. The communication channels should be opened. The project teams should be organized. The training in team work should be implemented. Multifunctional teams which are used in concurrent engineering should be formed. for Example: Quality circle A team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors who meet regularly to solve quality problems.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 10 Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce that ask for zero defects and new levels of productivity Let people know exactly what you want – don't make them guess. "Excellence in service" is short and memorable, but what does it mean? How is it achieved? The message is clearer in a slogan like "You can do better if you try." Don't let words and nice-sounding phrases replace effective leadership. Outline your expectations, and then praise people face-to-face for doing good work.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 11. a. Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force  Quotas and work standards focus on quantity rather than quality. Management may encourage poor workmanship in order to meet their quotas. Hence these quotas should be replaced with statistical methods of process control. Instead of quotas, management must learn and institute methods for improvements. 11. b. Eliminate Management By objective (MBO)  The management must learn the capabilities of the processes and how to improve them instead of management by objective. Internal goals set by management without a proper method cannot be achieved. Management by numerical goal is an attempt to manage without knowledge of what to do.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 12. Permit pride in workmanship When workers are proud of their work, they will grow to the fullest extent of their job. Restoring pride will require a long term commitment by management. By restoring pride, everyone in organization will work whole heartedly for the common good cause. Remove barriers that rob working people of their right to pride in workmanship. The barriers are given below. (a) workers not knowing how to interpret organisation’s mission. (b) Workers being blamed for system problems (c) Poor designs leading to the production of ‘junk’ (d) Inadequate training being provided. (e) Punitive supervision (f) Inadequate (or) ineffective equipment provided for performing the required work.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 13. Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone Since the organisation requirements change continuously to meet changing environment, everyone should be trained. A long – term commitment to continuously train and educate people must be made by management. A vigorous program of education and encouragement for self improvement should be instituted by the management. An organisation not only needs good people but also people who improve with education.

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy : 

Deming TQM principles (or) Deming Philosophy 14. Responsibility of management to accomplish the transformation Management should have responsibility to always improve quality and productivity by using proceeding 13 principles. It should create a corporate structure to implement the philosophy. A cultural change is required to change the previous ‘usual business’ attitude. Management must be committed, involved and accessible for the organisation to succeed in implementing the new philosophy. It should take action to accomplish the transformation.

Juran Trilogy : 

Juran Trilogy According to Juran, the definition of quality has two aspects from the customer’s perspective: Quality is 1. A greater number of features that meet customer needs 2. Fewer defects

Juran Trilogy : 

Juran Trilogy To attain quality you must begin by establishing the vision, policies and goals of the organization. Converting these goals into results is done through three managerial processes called the JURAN TRILOGY. 1. Quality Planning 2. Quality Control 3. Quality Improvement

Juran Trilogy 1.Quality Planning : 

Juran Trilogy 1.Quality Planning “Quality does not happen by accident, it must be planned.” The structured process for designing products and services that meet new breakthrough goals and ensure that customer needs are met. STEPS in the quality planning process... 1. Establish the project 2. Identify the customers 3. Discover the customer needs 4. Develop the product 5. Develop the process 6. Develop the controls and transfer to operations

Juran Trilogy 2. Quality Control : 

Juran Trilogy 2. Quality Control “maintain the status quo” Quality control can also be described as “a process for meeting the established goals by evaluating and comparing actual performance and planned performance, and taking action on the difference”. STEPS in the quality control process.. 1. Choose control subject 2. Establish Measurement 3. Establish standards of Performance 4. Measure Actual Performance 5. Compare to Standards (interpret the difference) 6. Take action on the difference

Juran Trilogy 3.Quality Improvement : 

Juran Trilogy 3.Quality Improvement “All improvement takes place project by project The process for creating breakthrough levels of performance by eliminating wastes and defects to reduce the cost of poor quality STEPS in the quality control process.. Prove the need for improvement Identify the improvement projects Establish project improvement teams Provide the project teams with resources, training,and motivation to: Diagnose the causes Stimulate the remedies Establish controls to hold the gains

The Quality Philosophy : 

The Quality Philosophy

Implementation of TQM : 

Implementation of TQM The TQM implementation process starts with senior management, particularly CEO’s commitment. Leadership is essential for all phases of implementation process and particularly at the beginning. Indifference and each of involvement by senior management are the important reasons for the failure of TQM. Senior management has to be educated in TQM concepts. Also, the managers should visit successful TQM organisations, read selected articles and books, attend seminars and conferences. An implementation plan should be developed. Timing of the implementation process is very much important.

Implementation of TQM : 

Implementation of TQM Formation of quality council to develop core values, a vision statement, mission statement and a quality policy statement with input from all departments. The active involvement of middle managers and first – line supervisors is essential to the success of the TQM effort. All other managers should undergo specific training. Action plan (road Map) is to be prepared. Managers should involve union leaders by sharing with them the implementation plans for TQM. Communication is essential throughout the implementation stage to create TQM awareness, interest, desire and action.

Implementation of TQM : 

Implementation of TQM Everyone needs to be trained in quality awareness and problem solving.  Customer, employee and supplier surveys must be conducted to benchmark the attitudes of these three stakeholders to provide ideas for quality improvement projects. Provide proper try to all.

What is Quality Council? : 

What is Quality Council? The quality council includes CEO and Senior managers of the functional areas -research, manufacturing, finance, sales, marketing etc., and one coordinator and a union representative. Duties- To develop the Quality statements e.g. Vision, Mission, Quality policy statements, Core values etc. To develop strategic long-term plans and annual quality improvement program. Make a quality training program. Monitor the costs of poor quality. Determine the performance measures for the organisation Always find projects that improve the processes and produce customer satisfaction. Establish work-group teams and measure their progress. Establish and review the recognition and reward system for the TQM system

Quality statements : 

Quality statements Vision statement – a short declaration of what the organization hopes to be tomorrow. Mission statement – a statement of purpose, who we are, who are our customers, what we do, and how we do it? Quality policy – is a guide for everyone in the organization ,how they should provide products and services to the customers.

Strategic planning : 

Strategic planning This Strategic planning sets the long–term direction of the organisation in which it wants to proceed in future Example: Types of products to be offered.

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 1. Customer needs Identification of customers and their needs. The organisation must seek their requirements, expectations and assess future trends before developing a strategic plan.

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 2. Customer position This second step requires the planner to determine its positioning with regards to its customers. Various alternatives such as whether the organisation should give up, maintain or expand Market position should be considered. In order to become successful, the organisation should concentrate and consolidate its position in its area of excellence

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 3. Predict the future The strategic planners should predict future conditions which will affect their product (or) service. The organisations should foresee the changing technology to continuously improve the quality of their product. Because the rate of change is continuously increasing. By using the demographics, economical forecasts and technical assessments (or) projections, the strategic planners can predict the future.

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 4. Gap Analysis Gap analysis is nothing but analysis and identifying the gaps between the current state and future state of the organisation. This concept is also known as value stream mapping. For identifying the gaps, an analysis of the core values and concepts is an excellent technique for pinpointing gaps.

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 5. Closing the Gap The strategic planning should be such way to close the gap by establishing goals and responsibilities. All stakeholders should be involved in the development of the strategic planning. This process is also termed as process improvement.

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 6. Alignment of Strategic Planning The strategic planning should be aligned with the mission statement, vision statement, core values and concepts of the organisation. The strategic planning will not be successful without his alignment. Organisation should embrace quality as an essential ingredient in their vision, mission and objectives.

Seven steps to strategic planning : 

Seven steps to strategic planning 7. Implementation Resources must be allocated for implementation of strategic planning. Collection of data, design of changes, overcoming resistance to change and monitoring activity to ensure the progress are implementation process of strategic planning.

Barriers in Implementing TQM : 

Barriers in Implementing TQM Lack of understanding of TQM concept. Absence of visible support from senior &top Management. Fear of change . Many layers of existing organization structure. Poor internal communication. Heavy work loads. Nature of organization. Lack of adequate Education &Training. Limited resources. Irregularity of the Meetings. Delay in implementation of Recommendation. Measurement difficulties

WHY TQM EFFORTS FAIL? : 

WHY TQM EFFORTS FAIL? Companies look at TQM as another business change that must be implemented due to market pressure without really changing the values of their organization. The view that the responsibility for quality and elimination of waste lies with employees other than top management. It is a “let the workers do it” mentality. Over- or under-reliance on statistical process control (SPC) methods. SPC is not a substitute for continuous improvement, teamwork, and a change in the organization’s belief system. However, SPC is a necessary tool for identifying quality problems. Lack of a genuine quality culture

Some of the Qc tools for analysis : 

Some of the Qc tools for analysis

The Deming Prize : 

The Deming Prize The Deming Prize is a Japanese award given to companies to recognize their efforts in quality improvement The Japanese considered him such an important quality guru that they named the quality award after him. The award has been given by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) since 1951. Competition for the Deming Prize was opened to foreign companies in 1984. In 1989 Florida Power & Light was the first U.S. company to receive the award.

Thank you : 

Prepared by: M.Ganesh Murugan Thank you

Some References : 

Some References

Some References : 

Some References

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