farm power and machinery

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

FARM POWER IN INDIA – Farm Power is an essential input in agriculture for timely field operations for increasing production and productivity of land. Farm power is used for operating different types of machinery like tillage, planting, plant protection, harvesting and threshing machinery.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1:

ENGG-233/353 Farm Power And Machinery Farm Power In India Shelke G.N Assistant Professor Department of Agriculture Engineering C.S.P.A Agriculture college Ashti, Maharashtra 414202 Phone :  +919561777282    E-mail:  shelkeganesh838@gmail.com

Slide 2:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Introduction FARM POWER IN INDIA – Farm Power is an essential input in agriculture for timely field operations for increasing production and productivity of land. Farm power is used for operating different types of machinery like tillage, planting, plant protection, harvesting and threshing machinery.

Slide 3:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components SOURCES OF FARM POWER There are different sources of farm power available in India which Human power Animal power Mechanical power (Tractors + Power tillers + Oil engines) Electrical power Renewable energy (Biogas + Solar energy + Wind energy)

Slide 4:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components HUMAN POWER Human power is the main source for operating small implements and tools at the farm . Stationary work like chaff cutting, lifting, water, threshing, winnowing etc are also done by manual labor. An average man can develop maximum power of about 0.1 hp for doing farm work

Slide 5:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components ANIMAL POWER Power developed by an average pair of bullocks about 1 hp for usual farm work. Bullocks are employed for all types farm work in all seasons. Besides bullocks, other animals like camels, buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules and elephants are also used at some places. The average force a draft animal can exert is nearly one-tenth of its body weight.

Slide 6:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components MECHANICAL POWER Broadly speaking, mechanical power includes stationary oil engines, tractors, power tillers and self propelled combines. Internal combustion engine is a good device for converting liquid fuel into useful work (mechanical work). The thermal efficiency of diesel engine varies from 32 to 38 per cent whereas that of petrol engine varies from 25 to 32 per cent. In modern days, almost all the tractors and power tillers are operated by diesel engines. Diesel engines are used for operating irrigation pumps, flour mills, oil ghanis , cotton gins, chaff cutter, sugarcane crusher, threshers, winnowers etc.

Slide 7:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 8:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components ELECTRICAL POWER Electrical power is used mostly in the form of electrical motors on the farms . It is clean, quest and smooth running. Its maintenance and operation needs less attention and care. Electrical power is used for water pumping, diary industry, cold storage, farm product processing, fruit industry and many similar things

Slide 9:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components RENEWABLE ENERGY It is the energy mainly obtained from renewable sources of energy like sun, wind, biomass etc. Biogas energy, wind energy and solar energy are used in agriculture and domestic purposes with suitable devices . Renewable energy can be used for lighting, cooking, water heating, space heating, water distillation, food processing, water pumping, and electric generation. This type of energy is inexhaustible in nature.

Slide 10:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 11:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Usage of renewable energy sources Solar energy- Solar dryers, lantern, cooker, solar still, solar refrigeration, solar lighting etc Wind energy - Water pumping, electricity generation etc. Biomass energy- Gasifiers to produce producer gas, pyrolysis to produce liquid fuels, Biogas etc Tidal energy – electricity generation Geothermal energy- Heat and electricity production

Slide 12:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Farm Mechanization The main concept of farm mechanization is to apply the principles of engineering and technology to do the agricultural operations in a better way to increase crop yield. This includes the development, application and management of all mechanical aids for field operation, water control, material handling, storage and processing . Mechanical aids include hand tools, animal drawn implements, power tillers, tractors, engines, electric motors, grain processing and hauling equipment's

Slide 13:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components SCOPE OF FARM MECHANIZATION Improved irrigation facilities, introduction of high yielding varieties. U se of higher doses of fertilizers and pesticides have increased the scope for greater farm mechanization If machines are used farmer and his animals are relieved of hard work. With the support of machines farmer can do his job better and quicker. He will get more leisure and devote his time to other works. He can earn better living.

Slide 14:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components BENEFITS OF FARM MECHANIZATION 1. Timeliness of operation 2. Precision of operation 3. Improvement of work environment. 4. Enhancement of safety 5. Reduction of drudgery of labor 6. Reduction of loss of crops and food products 7. Increased productivity of land 8. Increased economic return to farmer 9. Improved dignity of farmer 10. Progress and prosperity in rural areas

Slide 15:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components CONSTRAINTS IN FARM MECHANISATION 1 . Small land holdings 2. Less investing capacity of farmers 3. Adequate availability of draft animals 4. Lack of suitable farm machine for different operations 5. Lack of repair and servicing facilities for machines 6. Lack of trained man power 7. Lack of coordination between research organization and manufacturer 8. High cost of machines 9. Inadequate quality control of machine

Slide 16:

ENGG-233/353 Farm Power And Machinery Engine Shelke G.N Assistant Professor Department of Agriculture Engineering C.S.P.A Agriculture college Ashti, Maharashtra 414202 Phone :  +919561777282    E-mail:  shelkeganesh838@gmail.com

Slide 17:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Heat E ngine I s a machine for converting heat, developed by burning fuel into useful work . It can be said that heat engine is equipment which generates thermal energy and transforms it into mechanical energy.

Slide 18:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT ENGINES Based on combustion of fuel : 1. External combustion engine 2. Internal combustion engine . Based on fuel used 1.Diesel engine 2 . Petrol engine 3. Gas engine Based ignition of fuel 1. Spark ignition engine (Carburetor type engines) 2. Compression ignition engine ( injector type engines)

Slide 19:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components External Combustion Engine Here , the working medium, the steam, is generated in a boiler, located outside the engine and allowed in to the cylinder to operate the piston to do mechanical work.

Slide 20:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Internal Combustion Engine In internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder and heat is generated within the cylinder . This heat is added to the air inside the cylinder and thus the pressure of the air is increased tremendously . This high pressure air moves the piston which rotates the crank shaft and thus mechanical work is done

Slide 21:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Diesel engine – Diesel is used as fuel

Slide 22:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Petrol engine – Petrol is used as fuel

Slide 23:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components CONSTRUCTION OF AN IC ENGINE I.C . engine converts the reciprocating motion of piston into rotary motion The piston which reciprocating in the cylinder is very close fit in the cylinder.

Slide 24:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components CONSTRUCTION OF AN IC ENGINE Rings are inserted in the circumferential grooves of the piston to prevent leakage of gases from sides of the piston.

Slide 25:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components CONSTRUCTION OF AN IC ENGINE Usually a cylinder is bored in a cylinder block and a gasket, made of copper sheet or asbestos is inserted between the cylinder and the cylinder head to avoid ant leakage. The combustion space is provided at the top of the cylinder head where combustion takes place.

Slide 26:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components CONSTRUCTION OF AN IC ENGINE The end of the connecting rod connecting the piston is called small end. A pin called gudgeon pin or wrist pin is provided for connecting the piston and the connecting rod at the small end. The other end of the connecting rod connecting the crank shaft is called big end. When piston is moved up and down, the motion is transmitted to the crank shaft by the connecting rod and the crank shaft makes rotary motion.

Slide 27:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components The crankshaft rotates in main bearing which are fitted the crankcase. A flywheel is provided at one end of the crankshaft for smoothing the uneven torque produced by the engine . There is an oil sump at the bottom of the engine which contains lubricating oil for lubricating different parts of the engine. CONSTRUCTION OF AN IC ENGINE

Slide 28:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Working Principle Of I.C. Engine A mixture of fuel with correct amount of air is exploded in an engine cylinder which is closed at one end. As a result of this explosion, heat is released and this heat causes the pressure of the burning gases to increase. This pressure forces a close fitting piston to move down the cylinder. The movement of piston is transmitted to a crankshaft by a connecting rod so that the crankshaft rotates and turns a flywheel connected to it.

Slide 29:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Power is taken from the rotating crank shaft to do mechanical work. To obtain continuous rotation of the crankshaft the explosion has to be repeated continuously. Before the explosion to take place, the used gases are expelled from the cylinder, fresh charge of fuel and air are admitted in to the cylinder and the piston moved back to its starting position. The sequences of events taking place in an engine is called the working cycle of the engine. The sequence of events taking place inside the engine are as follows

Slide 30:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINE ( DIESEL/ PETROL ENGINE ) In four stroke cycle engines the four events namely suction, compression, power and exhaust take place inside the engine cylinder. The four events are completed in four strokes of the piston (two revolutions of the crank shaft).

Slide 31:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINE ( DIESEL/ PETROL ENGINE ) This engine has valves for controlling the inlet of charge and outlet of exhaust The opening and closing of the valve is controlled by cams, fitted on camshaft . The camshaft is driven by crankshaft with the help of suitable gears or chains. The camshaft runs at half the speed of the crankshaft.

Slide 32:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINE (PETROL ENGINE) In two stroke cycle engines, the whole sequence of events i.e., suction, compression, power and exhaust are completed in two strokes of the piston i.e. one revolution of the crankshaft. There is no valve in this type of engine . Gas movement takes place through holes called ports in the cylinder. The crankcase of the engine is air tight in which the crankshaft rotates.

Slide 33:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Upward stroke of the piston (Suction + Compression) When the piston moves upward it covers two of the ports. This traps the charge of air- fuel mixture drawn already in to the cylinder . T he piston compresses the charge and also uncovers the suction port. Now fresh mixture is drawn through this port into the crankcase. Just before the end of this stroke, the mixture in the cylinder is ignited. Thus , during this stroke both suction and compression events are completed.

Slide 34:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Downward stroke (Power + Exhaust) Burning of the fuel rises the temperature and pressure of the gases . When the piston moves down, it closes the suction port. Further piston uncovers first the exhaust port and then the transfer port. Now fresh charge in the crankcase moves in to the cylinder through the transfer port During the downward stroke of the piston power and exhaust events are completed.

Slide 35:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 36:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 37:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 38:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Special features of diesel engine Engine has high compression ratio ranging from 14:1 to 22:1. During compression stroke, the engine attains high pressure ranging from 30 to 45 kg/cm2 and high temperature of about 500°C. At the end of the compression stroke, fuel is injected into the cylinder through injectors (atomizers) at a very high pressure ranging from 120 to 200 kg/cm2 . Ignition takes place due to heat of compression only. There is no external spark in diesel engine. Diesel engine has better slogging or lugging ability i.e. it maintains higher torque for a longer duration of time at a lower speed.

Slide 39:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 40:

ENGG-233/353 Farm Power And Machinery Components of Engine Shelke G.N Assistant Professor Department of Agriculture Engineering C.S.P.A Agriculture college Ashti, Maharashtra 414202 Phone :  +919561777282    E-mail:  shelkeganesh838@gmail.com

Slide 41:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components ENGINE COMPONENTS Cylinder : It is a part of the engine which confines the expanding gases and forms the combustion space . It provides space in which piston operates to suck the air or air-fuel mixture. Cylinders are usually made of high grade cast iron.

Slide 42:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components ENGINE COMPONENTS Cylinder block: It is the solid casting body which includes the cylinder and water jackets (cooling fins in the air cooled engines). Cylinder head: It is a detachable portion of an engine which covers the cylinder and includes the combustion chamber, spark plugs or injector and valves.

Slide 43:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components ENGINE COMPONENTS Cylinder liner or sleeve: It is a cylindrical lining either wet or dry type which is inserted in the cylinder block in which the piston slides. Liners are classified as : (1) Dry liner and (2) Wet liner.

Slide 44:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Piston : It is a cylindrical part closed at one end. It is connected to the connecting rod by a piston pin. Cast iron is chosen due to its high compressive strength. Aluminum and its alloys preferred mainly due to it lightness. Head (Crown) of piston : It is the top of the piston. Skirt : It is that portion of the piston below the piston pin which is designed to adsorb the side movements of the piston.

Slide 45:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Piston ring: It is a split expansion ring, placed in the groove of the piston. The function of the ring are as follows : It forms a gas tight combustion chamber for all positions of piston. It reduces contact area between cylinder wall and piston wall P reventing friction losses and excessive wear. It controls the cylinder lubrication. Compression ring They prevent leakage of gases from the cylinder and helps increasing compression pressure inside the cylinder. Oil ring: They control the distribution of lubrication oil in the cylinder and the piston.

Slide 46:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Piston Pin : It is also called wrist pin or gudgeon pin. Piston pin is used to join the connecting rod to the piston. Connecting rod: It is special type of rod It transmits power of combustion to the crankshaft and makes it rotate continuously. It is usually made of drop forged steel.

Slide 47:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Crankshaft : It is the main shaft of an engine which converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion of the flywheel . Usually the crankshaft is made of drop forged steel or cast steel. The space that supports the crankshaft in the cylinder block is called main journal , T he part to which connecting rod is attached is known as crank journal . Crankshaft is provided with counter weights throughout its length to have counter balance of the unit.

Slide 48:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Flywheel: Flywheel is made of cast iron. Its main functions are as follows : It stores energy during power stroke and returns back the energy during the idle The rear surface of the flywheel serves as one of the pressure surfaces for the clutch plate. Engine timing marks are usually stamped on the flywheel, which helps in adjusting the timing of the engine. Sometime the flywheel serves the purpose of a pulley for transmitting power.

Slide 49:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Crankcase: The crankcase is that part of the engine which supports and encloses the crankshaft and camshaft. It provides a reservoir for the lubricating oil. It also serves as a mounting unit for such accessories as the oil pump, oil filter,, starting motor and ignition components. The upper portion of the crankcase is usually integral with cylinder block. The lower part of the crankcase is commonly called oil pan and is usually made of cast iron or cast aluminum.

Slide 50:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Camshaft: It is a shaft which raises and lowers the inlet and exhaust valves at proper times. Camshaft is driven by crankshaft by means of gears, chains or sprockets. The speed of the camshaft is exactly half the speed of the crankshaft in four stroke engine. Camshaft operates the ignition timing mechanism, lubricating oil pump and fuel pump. It is mounted in the crankcase, parallel to the crankshaft.

Slide 51:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Timing gear: Timing gear is a combination of gears, one gear of which is mounted at one end of the camshaft and the other gear at the crankshaft . Camshaft gear is bigger in size than that of the crankshaft gear and it has twice as many teeth as that of the crankshaft gear. For this reason, this gear is commonly called half time gear . Timing gear controls the timing of ignition, timing of opening and closing of valve as well as fuel injection timing.

Slide 52:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 53:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Inlet manifold : It is that part of the engine through which air or air-fuel mixture enters into the engine cylinder. It is fitted by the side of the cylinder head. Exhaust manifold: It is that part of the engine through which exhaust gases go out of the engine cylinder. It is capable of withstanding high temperature of burnt gases. It is fitted by the side of the cylinder head.

Slide 54:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Top dead center - When the piston is at the top of its stroke, it is said to be at the top dead center (TDC), Bottom dead center - when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, it is said to be at its bottom dead center (BDC ). Scavenging The process of removal of burnt or exhaust gases from the engine cylinder is known as scavenging.

Slide 55:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 56:

ENGG-233/353 Farm Power And Machinery Terminology Connected With Engine Power Shelke G.N Assistant Professor Department of Agriculture Engineering C.S.P.A Agriculture college Ashti, Maharashtra 414202 Phone :  +919561777282    E-mail:  shelkeganesh838@gmail.com

Slide 57:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components TERMINOLOGY CONNECTED WITH ENGINE POWER Bore- Bore is the diameter of the engine cylinder. Stroke - It is the linear distance traveled by the piston from Top dead center (TDC) to Bottom dead center (BDC).

Slide 58:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components TERMINOLOGY CONNECTED WITH ENGINE POWER Stroke-bore ratio -The ratio of length of stroke (L) and diameter of bore (D) of the cylinder is called stroke-bore ratio (L/D). In general, this ratio varies between 1 to 1.45 and for tractor engines, this ratio is about 1.25 . Swept volume - It is the volume (A x L) displaced by one stroke of the piston where A is the cross sectional area of piston and L is the length of stroke

Slide 59:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Compression ratio – It is the ratio of the volume of the cylinder at the beginning of the compression stroke to that at the end of compression stroke, i.e . ratio of total cylinder volume to clearance volume. The Compression ratio of diesel engine varies from 14:1 to 22:1 and that of carburetor type engine (spark ignition engine) varies from 4:1 to 8:1.

Slide 60:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Power – It is the rate of doing work. S.I. unit of power is watt. Watt = Joule/sec. (4.2 Joules = 1 Calorie). In metric unit the power can be expressed in kg.m /sec Horse power (HP) – It is the rate of doing work . Expressed in horse power Conversion factors from work to power 4500 kg m of work /minute = 1.0 hp 75 kg. m of work /second = 1.0 hp

Slide 61:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Indicated horse power (IHP) – It is the power generated in the engine cylinder and received by the piston . It is the power developed in a cylinder without accounting frictional losses. ( for 4 stroke engine ) ( for 2 stroke engine ) P = mean effective pressure, kg/cm2 L = stroke length, m A = cross sectional area of piston, cm2 N = engine revolution per minute x = number of cylinders  

Slide 62:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components In SI unit, indicated horse power is given as below: ( for 4 stroke engine ) ( for 4 stroke engine ) where P = mean effective pressure, Pa ( pascal ) L = length of stroke, mm A = area of piston, mm2 N = speed, RPM  

Slide 63:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Brake horse power (BHP) – It is the power delivered by the engine at the end of the crankshaft. It is measured by a dynamometer. where T = Torque in kg.m N = speed, RPM  

Slide 64:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Belt horse power – Power take-off horse power (PTO HP) – It is the power delivered by a tractor through its PTO shaft. In general, the belt and PTO horse power of a tractor will approximately be the same. The PTO hp is around 80-85% 0f tractor engine power Drawbar horse power (DBHP) – It is the power of a tractor measured at the drawbar of a tractor. It is that power which is available for pulling loads. It is around 50-55 % of engine power. Frictional horse power (FHP) – It is the power required to run the engine at a given speed without producing any useful work . It represents the friction and pumping losses of an engine . IHP = BHP + FHP

Slide 65:

ENGG-233/353 Farm Power And Machinery Different Systems of IC Engine Shelke G.N Assistant Professor Department of Agriculture Engineering C.S.P.A Agriculture college Ashti, Maharashtra 414202 Phone :  +919561777282    E-mail:  shelkeganesh838@gmail.com

Slide 66:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems Different systems available for efficient functioning of an engine are as follows Fuel supply system Lubrication system I gnition system C ooling system Governor Fuel is a substance consumed by the engine to produce power. The common fuel for Internal Combustion engines are Petrol Power kerosene High speed diesel

Slide 67:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINE The fuel supply system of spark ignition engine consists of Fuel tank Sediment bowl Fuel lift pump Carburetor Fuel pipes In some spark ignition engines the fuel tank is placed above the level of the carburetor. The fuel flows from fuel tank to the carburetor under the action of gravity . There are one or two filters between fuel tank and carburetor. A transparent sediment bowl is also provided to hold the dust and dirt of the fuel

Slide 68:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Fuel supply system in spark ignition engine There are one or two filters between fuel tank and carburetor. A transparent sediment bowl is also provided to hold the dust and dirt of the fuel . If the tank is below the level of carburetor, a lift pump is provided in between the tank and the carburetor for forcing fuel from tank to the carburetor of the engine. The fuel comes from fuel tank to sediment bowl and then to the lift pump. From there the fuel goes to the carburetor through suitable pipes. From carburetor the fuel goes to the engine cylinder through inlet manifold of the engine.

Slide 69:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components

Slide 70:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Carburetor The process of preparing air-fuel mixture away from the engine cylinder is called carburetion. T he device in which this process takes is called carburetor . Functions of carburetor To mix the air and fuel thoroughly To atomize the fuel To regulate the air- fuel ratio at different speeds and loads on the engine. T o supply correct amount of mixture at different speeds and loads

Slide 71:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE Fuel supply system of diesel engine consists of the following components Fuel tank Fuel lift pump or fuel feed pump Fuel filter Fuel injection pump High pressure pipe Over flow valve Fuel injector

Slide 72:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Fuel is drawn from fuel tank by fuel feed pump and forced to injection pump through fuel filter. The injection pump supplies high pressure fuel to injection nozzles through delivery valves and high pressure pipes. Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber through injection nozzles.

Slide 73:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components The fuel that leaks out from the injection nozzles passes out through leakage pipe and returns to the fuel tank through the over flow pipe. Over flow valve installed at the top of the filter keeps the feed pressure under specified limit . If the feed pressure exceeds the specified limit , the over flow valve opens and then the excess fuel returns to fuel tank through over flow pipe.

Slide 74:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components LUBRICATION SYSTEM E ngine is made of moving parts . Duo to continuous movement of two metallic surfaces over each other, there is wearing of moving parts, generation of heat and loss of power in engine . Lubrication of moving parts is essential to prevent all these harmful effects. Purpose of lubrication- Reducing frictional effect Cooling effect Sealing effect Cleaning effect

Slide 75:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Types of lubricants Lubricants are obtained from animal fat, vegetables and minerals. Vegetable lubricants are obtained from seeds, fruits and plants. Cotton seed oil, olive oil, linseed oil, caster oil are used as lubricants. Mineral lubricants are most popular for engines and machines. It is obtained from crude petroleum found in nature.. Petroleum lubricants are less expensive and suitable for internal combustion engines

Slide 76:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Engine lubrication system The lubricating system of an engine is an arrangement of mechanisms which maintains the supply of lubricating oil to the rubbing surfaces of an engine at correct pressure and temperature. The parts which require lubrication Cylinder walls and piston Piston pin crankshaft connecting rod bearings Camshaft bearings Valve operating mechanism Cooling fan Water pump and Ignition mechanism

Slide 77:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Types of lubricating systems Splash system Forced feed system

Slide 78:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

Slide 79:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

Slide 80:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

Slide 81:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

Slide 82:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

Slide 83:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

Slide 84:

Processes which depend primarily forces to accomplish the desired separation of components Different Systems of IC Engine – Cooling, Lubricating, Fuel Injection Systems

authorStream Live Help