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Nervous System

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Questions about Nervous system What causes nearsightedness? This is a common condition (also called “myopia”) in which the light rays that form the visual image focus in front of the retina (the area of the eye that is sensitive to light) rather than on the retina. For the best vision, the image must focus exactly on the retina. Myopia can be caused by having an abnormality of the lens or more often because the eyeball is longer than usual. Either way, it is treated with glasses or contact lenses. Does nearsighted can be pass through bloodline? Identifying the genes influencing myopia could help develop targeted treatments for children who are genetically predisposed to developing myopia. Twin and family studies strongly indicate that myopia is highly heritable. The prevalence of myopia is greater in children of myopic parents than children of nonmyopic parents.

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What Causes Farsightedness? Farsightedness occurs when light rays entering the eye focus behind the retina, instead of directly on it. The eyeball of a farsighted person is shorter than the eyeball of a person with normal vision. How does the Nervous System Work? The nervous system. Such a complex system for even the simplest task. It works in a network system. There is the central and peripheral nervous system. In these systems one receives external messages and reacts accordingly and the other operates but not under conscious control. How to Take Care of the Nervous System? The best way to take care of the nervous system is to eat right and exercise. Pyridoxine, also known as, vitamin B6 is one of the most important vitamins to promote good nervous system health.

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Endocrine System

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Questions about Endocrine What Causes of Dwarfism? Most cases of dwarfism are caused by inherited or spontaneous mutations in the FGFR3 gene, or deletions of the X chromosome. What Causes of Goiter? Goiter is most often caused by dietary iodine deficiency. Other causes include Graves' disease, Hashimoto's disease, benign thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer (malignant).

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What disease of the endrocrine system consists of weakness, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, hyperpigmentation, and decreased blood pressure?   Addison's disease. Addison's disease affects the adrenal glands,which produce corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids. Is TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) a tropic or nontropic hormone?   TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to realease its hormones. Tropic hormones stimulate specific target organs to produce their own hormones. Nontropic hormones exert their influence on body tissues rather than directly affecting specific organs.

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What is decreased glucose concentration in the blood? Hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia is increased glucose in the {blood;} the hypothalamus is an area of the brain that stimulates target organs to secrete {hormones;} homeostasis is the state of having all bodily functions in balance. What is a specialist of the endocrine system called?   The endocrine system is composed of ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood.   The sex hormones are produced where? The gonads. The gonads are the ovaries in females, and the testes in males. Gametes are sperm and egg cells.

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What does the hormone melatonin do? It helps to regulate sleep patterns.. Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland. The thyroid gland helps increase celluar metabolic rates. The pancreas stimulates the release of glucose, and the parathyroid glands increase blood calcium concentrations.   Insulin is produced where? The pancreas. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and it helps regulate the body's blood sugar levels.     An Epi-Pen contains what? epinephrine. An Epi-Pen is generally used for allergic reactions. It contains epinephrine which helps stop the allergic reaction.

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Muscular System

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How does the muscular system work? Muscels often work in pairs so that they can pulll in different or oppiste directions. The cells that make up muscels contract & then relax back to its original size. Tiny microscopic fibers in these cells compress by sliding in past each other like a sliding door being opened & shut again. What is the middle part of a muscle known as? The "middle" part of a muscle is the muscle belly. For instance, the peak of the biceps is the belly of that muscle - it is the part of the biceps musculotendinous unit that can be contracted, as in "make a muscle" when flexing the biceps. Musculotendinous unit: A muscle is anchored at both ends, usually by tendons, so that when a muscle is flexed or shortened concentrically, the muscle fibers pull closer together and the tendons pull on the bones that they are attached to, closing the joint angle that the muscle affects - in this case, bringing the forearm closer to the upper arm, decreasing the joint angle at the elbow. Question about Muscular System

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What is the shortest muscle in the human body? Though the stapedius is the smallest of all muscles in the body and is located in the middle ear, the styloglossus is the shortest and smallest of all the skeletal muscles. The tensor tympani is the shortest skeletal muscle in the human body. The stapedius is a skeletal muscle. What muscle is involved with the patellar reflex? The quadriceps group of muscles. Rectus Femoris more specifically. Where do your muscles get energy from? From the ATP coming from biological oxidation. However, in muscle cells, phosphocreatine acts as a long-term phosphate donor, and helps maintain high intracellular ATP levels even during prolonged muscle activity.

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How is oxygen carried in the blood to muscles? Oxygen is carried to the muscles in the red blood cells called haemoglobin. How are the respiratory and muscular system similar? The muscular system helps push air come into and leave the respiratory system through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, which is a muscle. What does the sartorius muscle do? It flexes the knee when the femur is laterally rotated. In other words, it helps you sit in a cross-legged position in which tailors once sat. How are the skeletal system and muscular system related to each other? The muscles are connected to the bones. Without the bones, the muscles would fall down in a mass of mush, but without the muscles, the bones would not be able to make our bodies move. We would always stay still.

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Digestive System

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Where does the food go first in the small intestine or in the long intestine? Food passes from the stomach to the small intestines where most of the nutrients are broken down and absorbed. From the small intestines the balance of the nutrients move to the large intestine where water is extracted and feces is moved to the rectum What is the function of our pancreas in the digestion of our food? The human body obtains the energy and nutrients it needs from food. However, our cells cannot absorb these nutritional benefits until the food has been "digested" - meaning, "processed and converted into a useable form". Thus digestion is the complex process of breaking down food molecules into energy and other useful components, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body to maintain good health. Food remnants which are not absorbed during the digestion process are expelled as waste in the form of feces.

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How does Digestive System Work? The digestive system works starting at the mouth. You chew the food up and your saliva breaks the food down. Your trachea pushes the food down to your stomach. The stomach has gastric juices that helps break the food down completely. What is the Digestive System? The digestive system is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The purpose of the digestive system is to break down food so that nutrients are absorbed by the body and to excrete waste products from the body.

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Respiratory System

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W hat causes asthma? Our bodies need oxygen from the air we breath in order for our cells to do their work. When we breath in, air, containing oxygen, enters through the mouth or nose, and descends through the windpipe, to tubes called the bronchi. The bronchi branch out into each lung where oxygen is picked up by passing blood. The blood then carries the oxygen throughout the body. What is asphyxia? Asphyxia is when there is less than normal oxygen delivered to the body or an organ and there is build up of carbon dioxide in the body or tissue. Not enough blood flow to an organ can cause asphyxia. What causes asphyxia? Asphyxia is caused by lack of oxygen to the body, such as during a natural gas leak

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What is the repiratory system? The respiratory system's job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing, from the body. The respiratory system is made up of two parts: the upper respiratory tract includes the nose, ears, sinuses, mouth and the structures found in the throat, and the lower respiratory tract includes the trachea, bronchial tubes and the lungs. The ribs and diaphragm assist the lungs as they expand and contract with each breath. In the lungs, impurities from the air are filtered out and the oxygen is transferred to the blood system. Oxygen is the fuel that all cells and all organs in the human body need to function. Getting enough oxygen is important for good health. What are the common causes of upper respiratory problems?    * Viral infections such as colds and flu.   * Bacterial infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia.   * Allergies.

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Who should be concerned about respiratory function? Respiratory health is a concern for children and adults with OI who:   * Are short in stature.   * Have scoliosis, kyphosis or both (kyphoscoliosis).   * Have chest or rib cage deformities such as pectus carinatum or pectus excavatum.   * Lead a sedentary life style.As a rule, the more severe the OI, the more susceptible the person will be to lung or breathing problems. Why does OI affect respiration? Deformities of the spine and ribs can limit the space available for the lungs to expand. This decreases the amount of air in the lungs, which means that less oxygen is available to the body and that the lungs cannot get rid of all of the carbon dioxide. Pulmonary (lung) complications can occur due to rib fractures, muscle weakness of the chest wall, heart valve disorders, chronic bronchitis and asthma.

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Circulatory System

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Why is the circulatory system also called as the transport system? The Circulatory System is the main transportation and cooling system for the body. The Red Blood Cells act like billions of little UPS trucks carrying all sorts of packages that are needed by all the cells in the body. Instead of UPS, I'll call them RBC's. RBC's carry oxygen and nutrients to the cells. Every cell in the body requires oxygen to remain alive. Besides RBC's, there are also White Blood Cells moving in the circulatory system traffic. White Blood Cells are the paramedics, police and street cleaners of the circulatory system. Anytime we have a cold, a cut, or an infection the WBC's go to work. How does the Circulatory System Work? The circulatory system is vital to our very existence. It takes the oxygen we get from the lungs and circulates it all through our body. It brings blood to the heart and other vital organs.

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What is Circulatory System? The circulatory system consists of 3 parts. They are the heart, blood, and blood vessels and their main function is to carry materials though the whole body. They carry water, oxygen, and nutrients to your billions of cells and carry away waste. Why is the Circulatory System Important? If you ever wondered how nutrients made it to the right organs in your body, then you might find it interesting to know that this is powered your circulatory system. Your circulatory system is important because it is relied upon by the entire body for acquisition of needed materials in order for the body to function. What does the Circulatory System do? The circulatory system moves fluid and blood through the body. It carries the needed nutrients and oxygen to the organs and tissues for healthy living.

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What are the symptons of circulatory system? The most common ailments are: varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, angina, anemia, thrombosis, blood clots, strokes, aneurysms, etc. Also there is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is the most common and is the leading cause of death in the US. It is also called "hardening of the arteries", arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, can lead to angina pectoris and heart attack. The biggest contributor to its development is major depression, but also cigarette smoking, obesity, and lack of exercise also are known to be contributors. What happens within the body's circulatory system during exercise? When you exercise, you work your muscles, including your heart. The faster your heart rate gets while exercising, the less it has to work, and the healthier you get. I assume, since your heart beats faster, your blood circulates faster. Basically, if your blood circulates faster, it brings more oxygen to your muscles so they won't tire out. Your circulatory system works the same, just faster.

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Immune System

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What does smoking do to immunity? Part of the reason smokers are at risk for lung cancer and respiratory diseases may be that smoking suppresses immune cells. When smokers quit, immune activity begins to improve within 30 days. When and why does the immune system malfunction? The immune system has so many built-in fail-safes that, in theory at least, we should rarely fall ill. But, in fact, we do. Harmful agents such as HIV can baffle our defenses. The system can simply be overwhelmed by the number and toxicity of viruses, bacteria, or other foreign cells and toxins. How does the immune system fight disease? Because war is a handy metaphor for the human body's reaction to disease, science writers like to describe the immune system in militaristic terms—the body's department of defense. But unlike the Armed Forces, the immune system has no headquarters or commander-in-chief. And its operations are usually swifter and more efficient than any army's could be.

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What are the parts of the system? Among the primary components of the immune system are a variety of white blood cells. These constitute a communications network that helps organize the immune response. What do the white cells do? Many mature white blood cells are highly specialized. The so-called T lymphocytes (T stands for thymus-derived) have various functions, among them switching on various aspects of the immune response, and then (equally important) switching them off. Another lymphocyte, the B cell, manufactures antibodies. A larger kind of white cell, the scavenger called the phagocyte (most notably the macrophage), eats up all sorts of debris in tissue and the bloodstream, and alerts certain T cells to the presence of antigens. What foods boost immunity? An adequate diet helps maintain immunity and keeps you healthy. The immune system needs such nutrients as protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Severely malnourished people are particularly vulnerable to immune dysfunction, and they get sick more easily than other people and stay sick longer. What most people want to know, though, is whether one specific food or kind of food will boost immunity in otherwise healthy people on an adequate diet. The answer is generally no.

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Can emotions affect the immune system? States of mind surely affect health, and extreme emotional stress may damage immunity and bring on illness. But research into the link between mind and immunity is in its early stages and has produced very little solid evidence so far—and not much advice about how to protect the immune system from the ill effects of emotional stress. An experiment may show that extreme grief depresses human T cells, for instance, but we don't know if the rest of the system is harmed, or whether the fluctuation means much. How does a vaccine help the human body's immune system fight a viral infection? It kills the virus by injecting it with a fluid, therefor killing the virus. Is a monocyte a red or white blood cell? A monocyte is a white blood cell found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow. It is a phagocytic cell that engulfs and kills bacteria and plays a role in killing tumor cells.

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Excretory System

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What is an octupus vulgaris excretory system? Octopus vulgaris is found at a depth of 100 to 150 meters. Ammonia excretion is taken to include renal and gill loss. How does the Excretory System Work? The excretory system works with the kidney and the bladder. Your kidney does the filtering of the blood, clean blood goes back into the body. The waste is send to the bladder to be expelled. How does the Excretory System Function? The excretory system is the biologicial system in your body that removes excess or dangerous chemicals from an organism. It eliminates oxygen waste products and other nitrogeneous materials.

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What causes UTI? Bacteria entering the urinary tract from the urethra account for most urinary tract infection causes. The most common bacterium responsible is Escherichia coli, or E. coli, which is normally present in the colon. The proximity of the opening of the urethra to the anus allows bacteria to gain entrance to the urinary tract where they can then multiply. Bacteria traveling up the urethra is one of the leading causes of bladder infections. What is Micturition? Micturition involves the reflex of the detrusor muscle of the bladder as you relax in order to urinate. So micturition is quite simply urinating. In all actuality it involves the bladder as well as the brain.

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Reproductive System

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What is Reproductive System? The reproductive system is a system within the body that produces children. In females, this refers to the uterus and ovaries. In men, it refers to the semen and scrotum. Why does the sex organ of the male erect? All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves — is one of the things that sets living things apart from nonliving things. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems it's not essential to keeping an individual alive.

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How does the Reproductive System Work? The female reproductive system involves the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus. The egg is released from the ovaries and then is fertilized in the fallopian tubes. From there it moves to the uterus where the fetus will grow and become a baby. The male reproductive system involves the sperm which fertilizes the female egg. What causes impotence? Our information shows that 10 causes of Impotence are related to diabetes, or a family history of diabetes (from a list of 203 total causes). These diseases and conditions may be more likely causes of Impotence if the patient has diabetes, is at risk of diabetes, or has a family history of diabetes.

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Growth and Development

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What is human growth and development? Human growth and development is usually a course taught in high school or college. This course deals with how a body grows, at what stages different parts of the body mature and the difference between the male and female maturation process. Why is cross-cultural research important to the study of human development?Cross-cultural research is important to the study of human development because it is a way to identify universal changes and processes experienced by individuals in all cultures. It is also important because it can be used to improve people’s lives. What are the three contexts associated with group specific changes? The three contexts associated with group specific changes are cultural, historical, individual differences.

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What is the continuity-discontinuity issue?The issue with continuity –discontinuity is whether age-related change is primarily a matter of amount or degree or more commonly involves changes in type or kind. What kinds of changes are universal? The social clock is universal because it shapes all lives into patterns of change. Ageism is also a universal change because it changes the attitudes of other people about their knowledge and what they are capable of.How do genetic differences and the timing of experiences contribute to individual differences? Genetic differences contribute to individual differences by making that person unique to everyone else heredity and the environment. The timing of experiences contribute to individuals differences because there may be specific periods of development when an organism is sensitive to the presence or absence of some particular kind of experience.

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What is the lifespan perspective?The lifespan perspective says that the important changes occur during every period of development and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur. What are the three domains of development?The three domains of development are cognitive, social, and physical. What were the contributions of Darwin and Hall to the scientific study of humandevelopment? Darwin’s and Hall’s philosophy provided framework for ideas about human development. Darwin’s theory of evolution believed that there could be an understanding of the development of the human species by studying child development. Darwin kept records of his own children’s development in hopes of finding evidence that supports the evolution theory. Hall used questionnaires and interviews large numbers of children to study children’s development. Both Hall and Darwin agreed that the milestones of childhood were similar to those that had taken place in the development of human beings.

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