ORGANIC FARMINGToday and Tomorrow : ORGANIC FARMINGToday and Tomorrow Lakshmisha G.
Division of Plant Physiology
IARI, New Delhi
India Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Slide 2: The discovery of a new food does more for the happiness of mankind than the discovery of a new star
Perhaps that’s why the word organic-food has become so popular in recent days across the world. The holistic system which produce the organic-food is called by many synonyms; organic farming, organic agriculture, holistic farming, traditional framing, classical farming, natural farming, vedic farming, panchakavya, rishi khethi, jivika krishi.
Let us see what does the definition of organic farming says.. Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI ORGANIC FARMING : ORGANIC FARMING Organic farming is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, Gemany)
Organic agriculture is a unique crop production management system which excludes all synthetic off -farm inputs (FAO, 1993).
Organic farming is a system which largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs and rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection (USDA) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Principles of Organic farming : Principles of Organic farming Nature is capital
Soil is the source of life
Feed the soil, not the plant
Diversification of production system
(Papendick and Parr 1982) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI SCOPE OF ORGANIC FARMING : SCOPE OF ORGANIC FARMING 25 million workers are poisoned each year by pesticides (Jayratnam, 1990)
Green revolution has caused great ecological losses
India has by default organic land in rain fed areas and in north eastern states
The global market for organic food has touched 31billion US $ and is set to increase
World wide organic area is more than 24 million hectares in more than 130 countries (IFOAM) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI AREA UNDER ORGANIC FARMING : AREA UNDER ORGANIC FARMING IFOAM -2004 India ranks 33rd in terms of total land under organic cultivation and 88th position for agriculture land under organic crops to total farming area. The cultivated land under certification is around 2.8 million ha. This includes 1 million ha under cultivation and the rest is under forest area (APEDA-2007-08) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI GLOBAL ‘ORGANIC-CREDIT’ EARNINGS : GLOBAL ‘ORGANIC-CREDIT’ EARNINGS IFOAM -2004 India has around 15.5 million US dollar ‘organic credits’ to its kitty Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Slide 8: COMPARISION Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Slide 9: After knowing the potentials of organic farming let us find out the opinion on organic farming.
The very moment we start collecting the opinion on OF, the entire world get divided in to two groups, the first group embrace the organic farming and the second group refutes
Let us see what does fascinates the first group to embrace the organic farming Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI FACINATING ORGANIC ! : FACINATING ORGANIC ! Organically grown crops may have, on average, a higher nutrient content than crops grown with chemical fertilizers and pesticides (Worthington, 1998)
The risk of produce grown organically being contaminated with pesticide residues is much smaller than with conventionally produced crops. (Schupbach, 1986) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI FACINATING ORGANIC ! : FACINATING ORGANIC ! Nutrient contents of organic over non-organic foods showed significantly higher amounts of minerals, vitamins, and dry matter (Adam, 2001)
Organic agriculture, which has a holistic approach that includes taking care of human beings needs and rights, is supposed to be beneficial for all people involved at all levels. (Cierpka, 2002) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI FACINATING ORGANIC ! : FACINATING ORGANIC ! In a two years study as made in western suburbs of Chicago, it has been observed that the average levels of minerals were much higher in the organically grown than in the conventionally grown food. Calcium is 63% higher, Iron 73%, Magnesium118%, Molybdenum 178%, Phosphorus91%,Potassium125%and Zinc 60% (Hong Kong Organic Directory - 2004)
Organic produce contains more vitamins, minerals, enzymes, trace elements and even cancer fighting anti oxidants than conventionally grown food (Bhattacharya et al., 2005) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI FACINATING ORGANIC ! : FACINATING ORGANIC ! But the cotton yields increased progressively under organic farming equating the yields under inorganic farming by sixth years (Rajendran et al., 1999) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Slide 14: ? Despite all these benefits of Organic products why does the world has been divided in to two halves
What decorates on the other face of the coin? Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI OTHER FACE OF THE COIN : OTHER FACE OF THE COIN From a nutritional perspective, there is currently not enough evidence to recommend organic foods over conventionally produced foods. (Williamson, British Nutrition Foundation 2007)
The available evidence shows that the nutrient levels and the degree of variation are similar in food produced by both organic and conventional agriculture. (Food Standards Agency 2006)
Given the wide variety of ways in any standard which even organic farms are run it is unlikely that guarantee for food quality can be produced. Organic is a mechanism or process; it does not guarantee the product. (Trewevas, A, 2004) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI OTHER FACE OF THE COIN : OTHER FACE OF THE COIN With respect to other food hazards, such as endogenous plant toxins, biological pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms, available evidence is extremely limited preventing generalized statements. Also, results for mycotoxin contamination in cereal crops are variable and inconclusive. 'organic' does not automatically equal 'safe.'
(Magkos et al., 2006)
Data concerning possible impacts on animal and human health of diets comprising organic or conventional produce are extremely sparse. (Williams, 2002)
Thus, it is not clear that, overall, organic foods are safer than conventional foods. (Bonti-Ankomah, et al, 2006) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI OTHER FACE OF THE COIN : OTHER FACE OF THE COIN …despite any differences, a well-balanced diet can equally improve health regardless of its organic or conventional origin. (Magkos et al, 2003)
…the current scientific evidence does not show that organic food is any safer or more nutritious than conventionally produced food. (Food Standard Agency UK 2003)
…..organically produced foods are not superior to conventionally produced foods with respect to their nutrient content... (Dangour et al., 2009) Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Slide 18: India has identified six Accreditation Agencies for certification or organic products
Coconut Development Board
Directorate of Cashew and Cocoa Board Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI Tomorrow : Tomorrow History has taught us that noble concepts will be much ahead of time
Contemporaries cannot understand the emergence of new concepts
No doubt every arguments have some truth in its pith
Criticisms can only shape the best out comes
Let us hope for the best in days to come Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI THANK YOU : THANK YOU Lakshmisha G., Division Of Plant Physiology, IARI