Category: Entertainment

Presentation Description

No description available.


Presentation Transcript

Computing - The Next 10 YearsInfinite Memory and Bandwidth : Implications for Universal Access to Information: 

Computing - The Next 10 Years Infinite Memory and Bandwidth : Implications for Universal Access to Information Raj Reddy Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA April 6, 2001 Talk presented at Georgia Tech 10th Anniversary Convocation

Future Technology: 

Future Technology Computational power doubles every 18 months (Moore’s Law) 100-fold improvement every 10 years Disk Densities double every 12 months 1000-fold improvement every 10 years Optical bandwidth doubling every 9 months 10000-fold improvement every 10 years Infinite Bandwidth and Memory before Computation Cost decreasing, density increasing

What does the future hold?: 

What does the future hold? We can see some glimpses of the future Universities without walls, Computers that never fail and self healing software Every home with giga PCs connected by gigabit networks Access to all the published creative works of the world anytime anywhere anyone Emergence of the World Bank of, not money, but Knowledge Systems, so-called geriatric robotics, that help the disabled lead normal lives, and Systems that give the rest of us superhuman capabilities, like getting a month’s work done in a day

Universal Access to Information: 

Universal Access to Information Information at your fingertips Access to all human knowledge: Anyone Anywhere Anytime

All Human Knowledge Recorded Information: 

All Human Knowledge Recorded Information Books Periodicals (journals, newspapers) Music, opera, dance Paintings, Sculptures and Monuments Movies, video Databases, software Suppose all of this were on the Web

Examples from 

Examples from Lecture: Michael Shamos on UL Books: A Child’s History of England Art: Greek Art


Examples from 

Examples from Lecture: Michael Shamos on UL Books: A Child’s History of England Art: Greek Art

What is a book? What is a digital book ?: 

Collection of static content Collection of dynamic multimedia content Linearly organised Browsable, navigable Selected by an Author as related Selected by User as related Occupying a single physical location No physical existence Physically bound between cover Instantly Transmittable What is a book? What is a digital book ?

What is a Library?: 

What is a Library? Collection of items Linearly organized (shelves) Chosen by budget constraints Occupying physical space Cataloged for access

What is a Digital Library?: 

What is a Digital Library? Collection of digital items (potentially huge) Encompassing everything (someday) Organized arbitrarily Occupying no physical space Fully content-searchable

Universal Library Implications: 

Universal Library Implications Elimination of time, space, cost constraints Democratization of information 'Knowledge is power' Hyperlinks to related information Preservation and Dissemination of Knowledge faster and wider Backup preservation Preservation of culture

Universal Library Implications: 

Universal Library Implications Research Web of scholarly information, reviews Teaching Support for distance education Academic publishing Virtual museums Interactivity

Universal Library Applications: 

Universal Library Applications Acess to 'Born Digital' Information World produces a Billion Billion(1018) bytes of information every year(Lyman and Varian) 90% is stored digitally Digital museum Digital tour guide What’s in the Taj Mahal?

Universal Library Applications: 

Universal Library Applications Research assistant What did Newton write about color? What are Moslem views on race? Teaching resource 'Act out' books in virtual reality Real-time explanations Business information Data mining

We Can Store Everything: 

We Can Store Everything 1 book = 500 pp. 1MB uncompressed – 300KB compressed 108 to 3x 108 books = ~1014 bytes = 100 terabytes Over 100 million computers on the Internet At 1 GB each, andgt;100 petabytes now 1 GB of disk costs ~$3 100 terabytes andlt; $300 thousand to $1 million

Non-textual Material: 

Non-textual Material 1 Movie = 10 GB 1 petabyte = 100,000 movies All the movies ever made! Audio 1 petabyte = 3000 years of music All music ever performed or recorded Paintings and Photos @ 1 MB 1 petabyte = 1 billion painting or photos

Non-textual Material: 

Non-textual Material Gore’s Digital Earth 'A multi-resolution, three-dimensional representation of the planet, into which we can embed vast quantities of geo-referenced data.' Area of Earth » 1/2 peta m2 1000 bytes/m2 feasible 2 MB/m2 not practical yet Þ 1021 bytes = 1 zettabyte {peta-, exa-, zetta-, yotta-}

Technological Challenges: 

Technological Challenges Input (scanning, digitizing, OCR) Data representation text, notations, images, web pages Navigation and Search Multilingual Issues Output (voice, pictures, virtual reality) Synthetic Documents

Universal Library Design: 

Universal Library Design Modular Technology plug-ins (e.g. machine translation) Distributed Mirror sites Multiple interfaces Human (languages, cultures, literacy) Machine

Universal Library Design: 

Universal Library Design Speech input/output Pictorial output Language support Translation assistants Summarization tools Synthetic documents Encyclopedia-on-demand

Input Issues: 

Input Issues Non-digital media Conversion, scanning, correction Triple keyboard, uncorrected OCR Digital media Formats, conversions, color representation ASCII, HTML, SGML, XML, PDF, PS, TEX JPEG, TIFF, GIF?

Input Issues: 

Input Issues Structured matter Musical notation, Laban Chemistry 3D Items Resource allocation (what’s first?) Duplication of effort (no registry)


Metadata Data about an item not part of the item Bibliographic Format, medium, encoding, resolution Provenance Reliability, integrity Permissions Who generates metadata?


Navigation Browsing, finding, searching, flying Fractal view Keys are granularity and connectivity View whole collections or one glyph Understanding structure of information Making Sense Of The World’s Knowledge

Searching Mathematics: 

Searching Mathematics

Searching Mathematics: 

Searching Mathematics

Multilingual Issues: 

Multilingual Issues Character sets Representations Íîäà ôèçè÷åñêè íàõîäèòñÿ â çäàíèè Èçâåñòèé Нода физически находится в здании Известий Multilingual navigation Translation assistance

Synthetic Documents: 

Synthetic Documents Documents derived automatically from retrieved information Multilingual translation Abstracts, summaries, glossaries Encyclopedia-on-demand

Information Reliability: 

Information Reliability Existence ¹ validity Universal Library Philosophy Avoid value judgments Provide information from which users (and programs) can assess validity Source, reputation, recency, reviews, consistency

Scaling Problems: 

Scaling Problems Search services (e.g. Altavista) index andgt;108 documents Suppose there were 1012 ? How can a billion users access the same item at once?

Policy Challenges: 

Policy Challenges Use of copyrighted material Economics (Who pays? Who gets?) Privacy Reliability of information Change in the nature of teaching

Use Of © Content: 

Use Of © Content Philosophy: must pay for use Authors, publishers will not suffer Implied license Automated permissions Bulk licensing Compulsory licensing Owner CAN’T refuse; user MUST pay


Economics Flat-fee subscriptions (e.g. HBO) Metered use (electric company) Microcharge (Tobias 'clickl') Free (paid by government) Automated permissions Use measured by technology

Operating Model: 

Operating Model Single portal for access to all information Universal Library provides input, access, multilingual, output and synthesis tools Universal Library will be a model scanning operation Registry of digitized works

Operating Model: 

Operating Model Specialized collections curated by specialists, provided to Universal Library Foreign collection performed in foreign countries Universal Library will be mirrored in ~12 sites around the world

Universal Library Status: 

Universal Library Status andgt;13,000 digital volumes Art Newspapers Music, video Portal to hundreds of other collections Visit


Projects Navigator Academic electronic publishing Electronic Union Catalog Books out of copyright books out of print Software distribution

Conclusions and Recommendations: 

Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Barely 10% of all public information is available on the Internet Government needs to play a leadership role in developing digital libraries Significant technical and operational challenges in migrating and maintaining holdings in digital form Intellectual Property rights need to be addressed to facilitate creation and access digital libraries Recommendations Support research: meta data, scalability, multiple languages, security, and usability Create testbeds: million book project Place all public governmental information online Preserve IP rights of creators by creating tax incentives for public use of online copyrighted information

authorStream Live Help