Slide 1: The Virtues, the Emotions, and the Good Life. Emotional Stability and Happiness. Slide 2: School of Positive Psychology
Martin Seligman (former president of the APA) Conrad Baars M.D. …man’s emotions have an innate need to be guided and directed by reason. That is to say that they need and desire to be guided by their very nature.
…When an emotion receives its proper guidance, it is satisfied and is now disposed to submit to the decision of the will as to what course of action shall be taken. Slide 3: The Kalon (the morally beautiful) The morally right
The beautiful The happy man is the noble man. Noble (kalon): attractive, morally beautiful, virtuous. The noble man is beautiful. 384-322 BC Aristotle Slide 4: Oscar Wilde
1854-1900 “Sin is a thing that writes itself across a man’s face. It cannot be concealed. People talk sometimes of secret vices. There are no such things. If a wretched man has a vice, it shows itself in the lines of his mouth, the droop of his eyelids, the moulding of his hands even.” Socrates 469 - 399 B.C. : Socrates 469 - 399 B.C. Slide 6: Socrates was able to divide people into three, on the basis of what each one regarded as happiness. Majority Second to majority Minority. The philosophers. Happiness: the perfection of the soul Slide 7: Theoretical Contemplation Knowing the highest things ...the activity of our intelligence constitutes the complete happiness of man,...So if it is true that intelligence is divine in comparison with man, then a life guided by intelligence is divine in comparison with human life. We must not follow those who advise us to have human thoughts, since we are only men, and mortal thoughts, as mortals should; on the contrary, we should try to become immortal as far as that is possible and do our utmost to live in accordance with what is highest in us. Slide 8: The human person must strive to know, to develop his mind, to enjoy the contemplation of truth. But man is not a “separate substance” (pure form). Man is a rational animal. Slide 9: Sometimes the appetites rebel against reason I.e.,
The person who easily gives up when things become difficult.
The person who runs when there is danger.
The person who cannot hold a job because he has no self-control over alcoholic drink.
The person who has no control over his sexual appetite, and so can think of nothing other than sex. Slide 10: The good life begins by bringing order to one’s life. Slide 11: Disorder Concupiscible appetite Irascible appetite Intellect
Will Bestial Slide 12: Ordered Life Concupiscible appetite Irascible appetite Will Reason Order is harmony, beauty, kaleo, kalon: noble Slide 13: The Intellectual Virtues:
Wisdom, Science, Understanding. The Intellect
The irascible appetite
The concupiscible appetite Prudence Justice Fortitude Temperance The Moral Virtues Beautiful (Noble) Character Slide 14: St. Augustine
Man comes from God, and it is his destiny to return to God. It is through virtue that man achieves his destiny.
“Oh Lord, you made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee.” Slide 15: God has revealed Himself in the Person of Christ, and it is revealed that we shall see God as He is: It is written (1 John 3:2): "When He shall appear, we shall be like to Him; and [Vulg.: 'because'] we shall see Him as He is." Perfect happiness is now a real possibility for everyone. Our destiny is to contemplate the Highest Being: Ipsum Esse Subsistens. Human Acts : Human Acts A specifically human act is intelligently motivated, that is, motivated by intelligible human goods, not sensible goods. Slide 19: Sensible goods: The taste of a burger
A pleasant odor
The warmth of a beach Intelligible goods: Friendships
A game of chess (leisure)
A religious action
Truth Slide 20: Scratching an itch is not a specifically human act Asking a question is a specifically human action that is motivated by a desire to possess an intelligible human good (truth). The Sensitive Appetites : The Sensitive Appetites Slide 28: The emotions have an innate need to be guided by reason Slide 32: Why? Because virtue perfects the powers of the soul. In other words, virtue disposes the powers of the soul to their proper activity. Happiness: Activity in accordance with perfect virtue Slide 33: Human life is a quest for the Supreme and Perfect Good. But human nature is not proportioned to it. The Supreme Good exceeds the capacity of human nature. The Theological Virtues : The Theological Virtues (Faith, Hope, and Charity)
Faith: pertains to the intellect, since truth is the object of faith. In fact, the object of faith is the first truth, that is, God Himself. By faith the Christian soul enters, as it were, into marriage with God…Before Christ’s coming no philosopher by his entire sustained effort could have known as much about God and the truths necessary for salvation as can a humble old woman now that Christ has come. Exposition, Apostles’ Creed : By faith the Christian soul enters, as it were, into marriage with God…Before Christ’s coming no philosopher by his entire sustained effort could have known as much about God and the truths necessary for salvation as can a humble old woman now that Christ has come. Exposition, Apostles’ Creed Between knowledge through science and knowledge through faith there is this difference: science shines only on the mind, showing that God is the cause of everything, that he is one and wise, and so forth. Faith enlightens the mind and also warms the affections, telling us not merely that God is first cause, but also that he is saviour, redeemer, loving, made flesh for us. Commentary, 2 Corinthians, ii, lect. 3 : Between knowledge through science and knowledge through faith there is this difference: science shines only on the mind, showing that God is the cause of everything, that he is one and wise, and so forth. Faith enlightens the mind and also warms the affections, telling us not merely that God is first cause, but also that he is saviour, redeemer, loving, made flesh for us. Commentary, 2 Corinthians, ii, lect. 3 Slide 37: Hope: The supernatural virtue of hope (a gift as well) looks expectantly to the future. Through the virtue of hope, a person awaits in confidence the fulfillment of the promises of God. Hope also looks forward to personal immortality and the resurrection of the body. Charity: The most important of the virtues, and the one most important for the development of the human person.
Charity is the love of God under the aspect of friendship. For on the purely natural level, man's greatest achievement is found in friendship (in the true sense of the word). That is why human friendship is the best way of explaining man's relationship to God brought about through charity. Slide 38: Man's greatest achievement is going to be found in a perfect love of God through charity, and so his personal growth will be found in his increasing love of God under the aspect of personal friendship. The Four Cardinal Virtues : The Four Cardinal Virtues These virtues perfect the four principal powers of the human person: Intellect, Will, Concupiscible, and Irascible powers. Practical Intellect: perfected by the virtue of Prudence : Practical Intellect: perfected by the virtue of Prudence Will – perfected by the virtue of: Justice. : Will – perfected by the virtue of: Justice. Irascible Appetite: perfected by the virtue of: Fortitude : Irascible Appetite: perfected by the virtue of: Fortitude Concupiscible Appetite: perfected by the virtue of: Temperance : Concupiscible Appetite: perfected by the virtue of: Temperance Slide 44: Intellect -- Prudence Will --- Justice Concupiscible
appetite Irascible appetite Temperance Fortitude Slide 47: Before man can perfect his ability to act well in relation to others (justice), he must perfect his ability to act well with himself from within himself. He will do so by cultivating temperance and fortitude. Concupiscible
appetite Irascible appetite
Fortitude Temperance Slide 48: CHRISTIAN DEFINITION of the Cardinal Virtues TEMPERANCE: Love that keeps itself entire and incorrupt for God. FORTITUDE: Love bearing everything readily for the sake of God. JUSTICE: Love serving God only, and therefore ruling well all else, as subject to man. PRUDENCE: Love making a right distinction between what helps it towards God and what might hinder it. ST. AUGUSTINE (On the Morals of the Catholic Church, Chapter 15)