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Who’s More Intelligent? : Who’s More Intelligent? An engineer designing a bridge A manager motivating his staff A professor teaching a class A violin player in a symphony An author writing a story An African Bushman finding water in the desert Intelligence Tests : Intelligence Tests The Binet-Simon Scale The Stanford Binet The Weschler Scales WAIS (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale) WISC (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children) WPPSI (Weschler Preschool/Primary Scales of Intelligence) culture fair tests performance tests The Binet-Simon Scale : The Binet-Simon Scale Binet-Simon Scale: The “FIRST” intelligence test. Alfred Binet was commissioned by the French Government to identify children with special learning needs Binet developed the concept of “Mental Age” Mental age (MA) An individual’s level of mental development relatives to others example: if a 10 year old scored the same as the average 12 year old, he had a mental age of 12 Alfred Binet The Stanford-Binet : The Stanford-Binet Louis M. Terman: working at Stanford University, developed an “English” version of the Binet-Simon Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ): credited to Terman. Expresses the relationship between “mental age” and “chronological age” as a single number (a “quotient”) Chronological age (CA) Age from Birth IQ = An individual’s mental age/chronological age * 100 (devised in 1912 by William Stern) IQ = MA/CA x 100 Measuring Intelligence : Binet’s Original Formula on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 IQ = MA CA X 100 Measuring Intelligence Examples of IQ Computation : Examples of IQ Computation a ten year old: scores at the level of the average 12 year old on a given test 12/10 x 100 = 120 (a bright 10 year old) a ten year old: scores at the level of the average 8 year old on a given test 8/10 x 100 = 80 (a below average 10 year old) Slide 10: David Wechsler Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III (WAIS-III) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (WISC-IV) for children between ages of 6 and 16 Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - III (WPPSI-III) for children from the ages of 4 to 6 and a half Theories of Multiple Intelligence : Theories of Multiple Intelligence Charles Spearman’s General intelligence “g” L. L. Thurstone’s Seven Mental Abilities Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Charles Spearman Two-factor theory : Charles Spearman Two-factor theory “g” factor (general intelligence): Spearman stressed a general mental energy that can be channeled in various directions. Intelligent people can perform well in many areas. s factors (specific intelligence): reflect specific knowledge and abilities that are only used when performing specific tasks that have been learned L.L. Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities : L.L. Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities In contrast, L. L. Thurstone said primary mental abilities are “independent” of each other. A person could excel in one area and be very average in others L.L. Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities : L.L. Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities 1. spatial visualizations 2. verbal meaning 3. word fluency 4. number facility 5. memory 6. reasoning 7. perceptual speed Multiple-factor theory- L.L Thurstone’s theory that intelligence consists of seven primary mental abilities Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences : Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Much like Thurstone, Gardner suggests, seven “independent” areas (types) of intelligence. Gardner’s Theory : Gardner’s Theory Verbal Skills: The ability to think in words and use language to express meaning (e.g.) Authors, journalists, speakers Mathematical Skills: The ability to carry mathematical operations. (e.g.) Scientists, engineers, accountants Spatial Skills: The ability to think three-dimensionally (e.g.) Architects, artist, sailors Gardner’s Theory : Gardner’s Theory Body-Kinesthetic Skills: Ability to use one’s body or to work with objects in highly differentiated and skillful ways. (e.g.) Surgeons, craftspeople, dancers, athletes Musical Skills: A sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. (e.g.) Composers, musicians,& sensitive listeners Interpersonal Skills: The ability to understand and effectively interact with others (e.g.) Successful teachers, mental health professionals Gardner’s Theory : Gardner’s Theory Intrapersonal Skills: The ability to understand oneself (e.g.) Theologians, psychologists Naturalist Skills: The ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems. (e.g.) Farmers, botanists, ecologists, landscapers Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences : Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Verbal Skills – Ernest Hemingway, Shakespeare Logical-mathematical - Newton, Einstein Spatial - Picasso, DaVinci Body-kinesthetic - M. Jackson, M. Jordan Musical – Mozart, Eric Clapton Interpersonal - Ghandi, Ronald Reagan Intrapersonal - Aristotle, Plato Naturalist – Konrad Lorenz Sternberg’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences : Sternberg’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Robert Sternberg Triarchic Theory Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory : Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Triarchic Theory- Sternberg’s theory that intelligence consists of compotential intelligence, experiential intelligence, and contextual intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory : Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Analytical intelligence, the ability to complete academic, problem-solving tasks, such as those used in traditional intelligence tests. The basic unit of analytical intelligence is a component. Creative or synthetic intelligence, the ability to successfully deal with new and unusual situations by drawing on existing knowledge and skills. Individual high in creative intelligence may give 'wrong' answers because they see things from a different perspective. Practical intelligence, the ability to adapt to everyday life by drawing on existing knowledge and skills. Practical intelligence enables an individual to understand what needs to be done in a specific setting and then do it. Emotional Intelligence : Emotional Intelligence DANIEL GOLEMAN is the author of the international bestsellers, Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively, to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, to use feelings to facilitate thought, and to manage emotions in oneself and others. The Comparison of the view of Gardner, Sternberg& Goleman : The Comparison of the view of Gardner, Sternberg& Goleman Gardner Sternberg Goleman Nature vs. Nurture in term of Intelligence : Nature vs. Nurture in term of Intelligence Arthur Jensen He argued that environment plays only a minimal role in intelligence. Heritability – The fraction of the variance in a population that is attributed to genetics. The Influence of Heredity& Environment : The Influence of Heredity& Environment Genetic Influences / Nature VS Environmental Influences / Nurture The Influence of Heredity& Environment : The Influence of Heredity& Environment Genetic Influences Heritability Adoption studies Gene Environmental Influences Poor prenatal care Malnutrition Exposure to toxins Large Family Size Stressful family circumstances Neighborhoods School The Extremes of Intelligence : The Extremes of Intelligence Mental Retardation: A condition of limited mental ability in which the individual (1) has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, (2) has difficulty adapting to everyday life, and (3) has an onset of these characteristics by age 18. Giftedness: Having high intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) or superior talent for something Levels of Mental Retardation : Levels of Mental Retardation Mild - 55 through 70 (IQ) may be able to function independently Moderate > 40 through 54 will need some level of care and supervision Severe > 25 through 39 will need extensive care and supervision Profound > 0 through 25 incapable of the even the simplest tasks Organic retardation is mental retardation caused by a genetic disorder or by brain damage Mental Retardation : Mental Retardation Organic retardation is mental retardation caused by a genetic disorder or by brain damage Cultural-familial retardation – Individuals with this type of retardation often results from growing up in a below-average intellectual environment Some Genetic Causes of Retardation : Some Genetic Causes of Retardation Down syndrome: results from an “extra” defective 21st chromosome (extra chromosome is present) Fragile-X syndrome: an abnormality in the X chromosome Some Genetic Causes of Retardation : Some Genetic Causes of Retardation Fragile-X syndrome: an abnormality in the X chromosome Phenylketonuria (PKU): An enzyme needed for metabolizing certain foods is absent. Toxins collect and damage the nervous system Other Causes of Retardation : Other Causes of Retardation alcohol or other drugs during pregnancy exposure to toxins or radiation during pregnancy maternal illness during pregnancy birth trauma malnutrition/deprivation during childhood numerous other causes Giftedness : Giftedness Gifted: Having high intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) or superior talent for something Characteristics of children who are gifted 1. Precocity 2. Marching to their own drummer 3. A Passion to master Some gifted children not become gifted because they have been pushed too hard, as result they lose their internal motivation Creativity : Creativity Creativity- The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems - Divergent thinking: Thinking that produces many answers to the same question; characteristic of creativity - Brainstorming A technique in which children are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group, play off one another’s ideas and say practically whatever comes to mind - One can be very creative without having superior intelligence In contrast - Convergent thinking: Thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the kind of thinking required on conventional intelligence tests Thank you : Thank you for your Attention You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.