Brain Cancer

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Brain cancer : 

By Fontip Seeboonruang Biology 033 |Spring 2010 Brain cancer

The Genetics of Cancer? : 

The Genetics of Cancer? Cancer is considered a genetic disease because it is caused by changes in your genes Unlike most genetic diseases, there are actually hundreds of genes that can contribute to cancer progression Cancer is therefore considered a heterogeneous disease, making it difficult to develop therapies

Where Does Cancer Occur? : 

Where Does Cancer Occur? Cancer comes from a single cell Any cell can become cancerous Most common in epithelial cells Exposed to external environment Tend to divide more than other cells Simple squamous epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

What contributes to cancer progression? : 

What contributes to cancer progression? Mutations must occur in specific genes in order for cancer to progress Oncogenes – genes that promote proliferation Called proto-oncogenes when they are functioning normally Activating mutations turn them into oncogenes Tumor Suppressors – genes that inhibit proliferation and help cells stay “normal” Inactivating mutations will promote cancer

What is brain cancer? : 

What is brain cancer? Abnormal malignant (cancerous) growth in brain tissue created by uncontrolled cell division Cancerous cells grow to form a mass of cancer tissue, or a tumor, and depending on where the mass is located will interfere with brain function Frontal lobe – voluntary motor control Parietal lobe – somatesthetic interpretation Temporal lobe – vision and hearing

Types of brain cancer : 

Types of brain cancer Primary brain tumor – cancer cells that develop from brain tissue Metastatic brain tumor – cancer that has spread from other body sites to the brain Brain metastasis shown on a magnetic resonance imaging

Types of Primary brain tumors : 

Types of Primary brain tumors Glioblastoma Multiforme The most common and aggressive type of brain tumor involving neuroglial cells accounting for 52% of all brain tumor cases Giant cell glioblastoma – bizarre multinucleated giant cells Gliosarcoma – commonly occurs in the frontal lobe Medulloblastoma highly malignant primary brain tumor that originates in the cerebellum Invasive and rapidly growing tumor that spreads through the cerebrospinal fluid Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Intracranial brain tumors often occurring in patients with severe immunosuppression, typically AIDS

Sources of brain cancer metastasis : 

Sources of brain cancer metastasis Lung cancer 48% Breast cancer 15% Melanoma 9% Genitourinary tract cancers 11% Osteosarcoma 10% Neuroblastoma 5% Lung cancer metastasis

Diagnosis : 

Diagnosis Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan – uses magnetic fields to generate images of the brain Computer tomography (CT) scan – uses a sophisticated x-ray machine to produced 2-D images of the brain Angiogram – special dye is injected into the arteries that feed the brain, making the blood vessels visible on X-ray Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), single-proton emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomograph (PET) can be combined with MRIs to understand effects of a tumor on brain activity and function PET scan of glioblastoma multiforme

Treatment : 

Treatment SURGERY Surgery is the initial therapy for nearly all patients and can cure most benign tumors Tumors can be removed either completely, partially or not at all RADIATION THERAPY Primary treatment for patients with metastatic brain tumors Can cure some patients and prolongs survival for most STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY Precisely targets the tumor with high doses of radiation without effecting surrounding tissue CHEMOTHERAPY Provides only modest benefits, but plays an increasingly important role in pain relief Treatment for tumors depends on a number of factors, as well as the patient’s age and general health

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