Org. Change ppt

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Welcome to Week 10 Organisational Change


OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY Lectures, Check Attendance Guest Speaker-Mr. Andy Osei-Okrah (5:30-6:45pm) Lectures (7:00-8:00pm) Question Time

Motivation for the Day : 

Motivation for the Day Success is intentional Have an idea? Implement it

Introduction : 

Introduction Change is inevitable: the problem is how best to harness change and use its consequences for the benefit of the organization itself.

Management of Change : 

Management of Change Precise definition of the operational changes that are needed. Definition of how the new working methods will affect particular people and groups. Identification of attitudes and perspectives currently held by employees and how these support current working practices. Statement of the attitudes and perspectives necessary to enable people to adapt successfully to new environments and working methods. Implementation of measures designed to change existing attitudes.

Techniques for Managing Change : 

Techniques for Managing Change Firms initiate change they can control and modify its consequences. Thus, some large business make one or more senior managers specially responsible for the identification of problem areas requiring change, and for its implementation.

Techniques for Managing Change : 

Techniques for Managing Change Creation by the organization of a financial reserve specifically intended to protect employees from the diverse consequences of unforeseen change. Eg. Funds can be used to retrain employees. Maintenance of existing work groups, while changing the content of their duties, Loyalty of teams can be powerful agent of change. Preparation of “skills inventories” of all the attributes, qualifications and experiences possessed by each of the organizations employees.

Techniques for Managing Change : 

Techniques for Managing Change Carefully explaining to workers the causes and potential consequences of likely changes to things that will affect them. Helping employees cope with change, emphasizing the need for transferable rather than purely job specific skills.

Four Strategic Alternatives : 

Four Strategic Alternatives Altering technologies by introducing new equipment, methods, materials and systems. Existing staff may need to be retrained to handle the new technology, or different staff might be required. Altering structures –this involves organization design-centralization or decentralization of functions and accountability system. Altering tasks-changing the content of employees’ jobs, increasing or decreasing the extent to the division of labor within the organization, and so on. Altering the people who do the work. Here management focuses on solving the human problems created by change.

The nature of organisational change : 

The nature of organisational change Change is a pervasive influence. It is an inescapable part of both social and organisational life. Organisational change can be: Deliberately initiated by management Evolve slowly over time Imposed by changes in policy Result from environmental pressures

Forces of change : 

Forces of change Uncertain economic conditions Globalisation Government intervention Political interests Scarcity of natural resources Technologicaldevelopment Increased demand for high quality goods, services and customer satisfaction Flexibility in organisational structure Changing nature of the workforce Internal organisational conflict

Planned organisational change : 

Planned organisational change Underlying objectives of organisational change programmes can be seen as: Modifying the behavioural patterns of members of the organisation Improving the ability of the organisation to cope with changes in its environment

Planned organisational change (Continued) : 

Planned organisational change (Continued) A sense that the organisation could do better The need to improve flexibility or quality A sense that skills are under-utilised Technological or work practice changes Over-control of workers or boring work Ineffective communication Fractious relationships between managers and managed

Resistance to change: individual : 

Resistance to change: individual Individual resistance can arise from: Selective perception Habit Inconvenience or loss of freedom Economic implications Security in the past Fear of the unknown

Resistance to change: organisational : 

Resistance to change: organisational Organisational resistance can arise from: Organisational culture Maintaining stability Investment in resources Past contracts or agreements Threats to power or influence

Actions to secure effective change : 

Actions to secure effective change Create a sense of urgency among relevant people Build a guiding team which has credibility Create visions that are sensible, clear and uplifting Communicate the vision and strategy to induce understanding and commitment Empower action and remove obstacles Produce short term wins Do not let up but maintain momentum Make change stick by nurturing a new culture

Minimising the problems of change : 

Minimising the problems of change Create an environment of trust and shared commitment Genuine participation of all staff concerned as early as possible Team management and co-operation between staff and unions A carefully designed human resource management action programme Incentives such as payment schemes Maintenance of the socio-technical balance Careful attention to job design, methods of work organisation, relations between jobs and task design

Overcoming Resistance to Change : 

Overcoming Resistance to Change Education and communication. Participation and involvement-will stimulate commitment to new methods. Negotiation and agreement Manipulation-present the proposed change in the most favorable manner.

Change leaders : 

Change leaders Effective leadership of change may include the following key factors: Effective communication of the reasons for change Releasing the potential of all involved in the change Setting a good personal example Self-pacing to avoid unnecessary stress


EXERCISE Think of the members of your work or study group for a few minutes and consider their personalities: If they were a sports team, what would they be? If they were a product of nature, (flower, tree, bird, animal) what would they be? If you were to draw a building representing their major characteristics, what would it be?

Thanks : 

Thanks Conclusion Questions? 3.21

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