Perspectives on Rightshifting

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Presentation given at Agile North 2008

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Perspectives on Rightshifting:

Perspectives on Rightshifting An Anecdotal Journey through the Software Development Industry with Bob Marshall

Notes:

Notes Software is important (commercially). Quality of Life at work is important (morally). We have a social responsibility to make our businesses as effective as possible (ethically). These are NOT incompatible (exactly the opposite, in fact).

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The software development industry worldwide - as generally perceived Distribution of Organisations vs. Effectiveness % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5

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% of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Distribution of effectiveness is severely left -shifted. Benefits derive from shifting to the Right. [Courtesy: Steve McConnell: After the Gold Rush] Reality: The Basic Rightshifting Curve

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Waste = All those activities that don’t add stakeholder value. (N.B. Some essential non value-adding activities always remain). Waste % of organisations Effectiveness Wasted effort % waste 100 75 50 25 0 1 2 3 4 5

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Not a direct reciprocal of waste. Can - and does - go negative. Productivity = unit of output per unit of input or value per unit of effort . Productivity % of organisations % waste Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Wasted effort Productivity A B F 100 75 50 25

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Software Development Life Cycle % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Code & Fix Waterfall Agile Beyond ?

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Flow Mode % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Random Batch & Queue Sprints / Backlog / User Stories / Use Cases Systems Thinking – e.g. Single piece continuous flow?

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Feedback delay % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Random 3 – 6 Months 2 – 4 weeks Daily

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Administrative Project Management % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 APM Fun a.k.a. Job Satisfaction, Work-life balance Fun APM a.k.a. Ceremony, bean counting, and exemplified by command & control management style (transactional leadership). Wasted potential

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Perspective on the Individual % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Respect . Heroism

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Measurement % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Metrics Effort Rightshifted organisations put less effort into measurement because they have a better idea of their Rightshifting goals, therefore the questions to which they need answers, and thus what to measure. Plus, measurement is generally part of their BAU. (Effort a.k.a. cost)

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Inductive vs. Deductive % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Focus Rightshifted organisation focus collectively on fundamental principles (deductive), in contrast to a focus on the practices of effective development (inductive). Few indeed seem to have studied or understand the principles of effective development. And the implications ? Principles Practices

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Toolheads % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Predilection Showing the relative predilection for tools (as the answer to e.g. ignorance), not so much the actual deployment or utilisation of tools.

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Quality and Testing % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 How can Rightshifted organisations get away with so much less testing, yet still have very low defect rates? Testing effort Defects seen by users High Low Quality Philosophy Inspection (test after) Zero defects (test first) Many Few

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Development Focus % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 CV-centric Code-centric Requirements-centric Learning-centric

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Maturity % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 e.g. CMMI APM 1 2 3 4 5

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Risk awareness % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Awareness Left-shifted organisations avoid talking (even thinking!) about risk. Agile practices more-or-less implicitly mitigate risk. Rightshifted organisations transcend risk management in favour of opportunity management.

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% of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Learning Learning = knowledge systematically captured, and with BAU designed such that knowledge assets must be “Pulled” - and thus re-used - across projects. Systematic Learning

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Even though e.g. Agile practices such as refactoring reduce the impact (cost) of design loopbacks, they may actually exacerbate their frequency . % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency Unplanned design loopbacks Many Few None Impact Dip in frequency for e.g. Waterfall organisation is bought at the expense of product quality (fit for purpose)

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a.k.a. Due Date performance. i.e. How often products are shipped on time, milestones and deadlines met, etc.. Best = circa 98% on-time delivery. % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Conformance Conformance to Schedules Good Poor

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Third Parties here include benchmarking partners and organisations, consultants, etc. in the pursuit of (external) knowledge and skills. % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Involvement Use of Third Parties High Low

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Problems with the product found “post-live” % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Problems Deployment problems Many Few

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Rightshifted organisations have much more uniform results across projects. % of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Variation Variability in Project Success High Low Individuals The System Unsure

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Although this data is for projects (2087 separate projects), it looks surprisingly similar to the rightshift curve for organisations. ISBSG = International Software Benchmarking Standards Group Corroborating data from ISBSG

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% of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 The Four Management Measures High Low Metrics Effort Rightshift Left drift Drag Turbulence

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% of organisations Effectiveness 0 1 2 3 4 5 Metaphor in use Office work Software Factory Product Design (Studio) Value Stream Design

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End of Part 1

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Part 2 – The Undiscovered Country

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation So now we’ve taken a look at the state of the software industry as I see it today. Let’s think about the journey ahead for all of us: the Journey into the Undiscovered Country of the Future. What does life look like - and what does work work like - in organisations way over to the right?

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation What is FlowChain? One model for how to run a development organisation Based on principles from Lean Product Design Takes a top-down Systems view A concrete example of a Rightshifted organisation

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation The next few slides introduce the fundamental concepts underpinning FlowChain: Covalency Single-piece Continuous Flow In-band Performance Improvement Evolution Emergence Systems Thinking YAGNI (Self) Organise Against Demand

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Term appropriated by me for use in this context Conveys the idea (and ideal) that: “Endeavours have to deliver value to many masters, concurrently”: Sponsors Users The Business The Software Organisation Others At the root of all Engineering disciplines Covalency

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Improves responsiveness to demand Reduces cycle times Enables incremental delivery of value (ROI) Accelerates feedback (=> faster Rightshifting) Minimises stakeholders’ financial exposure Less waste Minimises work-in-process (inventory) Single-piece Continuous Flow

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Embeds both incremental and step-function change within the daily operational rhythm of an organisation Increases staff engagement Places responsibility on the front line Supports Evolution Widespread alternative – OOB improvement In-band Performance Improvement

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Heraclitus: “Change is the only constant” Build some kind of “Sense and Respond” ability into the fabric of an organisation’s daily operational rhythm Does away with BDUF Evolution

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Allow your approach to emerge “in vivo” – by observing how people actually do things, and laying the paths where the trails appear. Just a few simple principles (rules), cause complex and optimal behaviours to emerge (c.f. ants, bees, fish, etc.) Emergence

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Deming: 95% of an individual's performance is dictated by the System. Whole product = Operational Value Stream Optimize the throughput of the whole System (i.e. the organisation, not any given project or sprint) C.f. Senge; Goldratt; etc. Systems Thinking

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation You ain’t gonna need it! Defer decisions until the last possible responsible moment. The best chance to have the necessary information to hand. C.f. Set-based Concurrent Engineering (SBCE) YAGNI

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Understand demand (on the system) Arrange things so the system can organise itself in response to demand (best known example: “Pull” a.k.a. Make to order) Standards reduce variation – great for manufacturing but death for innovation and excellence in design engineering. Self-Organise Against Demand

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Enough of the Theory, already!

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation What is a Business?

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation A business as a System Customer Seeking Value Shareholder Seeking a Return on Investment

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation Value Stream Development as a System Operational Value Stream Owner Creating an Operational Value Stream Enhancing an Operational Value Stream

FlowChain™ evolving the Software Development Organisation:

FlowChain ™ evolving the Software Development Organisation FlowChain in Practice Operational Value Stream Owners Backlog Pool WIP

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The Beginning – Thank You!

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