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SOLAR SYSTEM

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comprises the  Sun  and the objects that  orbit  it, whether they orbit it directly or by orbiting other objects that orbit it directly

Sun :

Sun > Solar System's  star , and by far its chief component. Its large mass (332,900 Earth masses) produces temperatures and densities in its  core  high enough to sustain  nuclear fusion , which releases enormous amounts of  energy , mostly  radiated  into  space  as  electromagnetic radiation , peaking in the 400–700 nm band of  visible light .

Inner Solar System :

Inner Solar System > the traditional name for the region comprising the terrestrial planets and asteroids. Composed mainly of  silicates  and metals, the objects of the inner Solar System are relatively close to the Sun; the radius of this entire region is shorter than the distance between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.

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Inner planets

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Mercury

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  is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest planet in the Solar System (0.055 Earth masses). Mercury has no natural satellites; besides impact craters, its only known geological features are lobed ridges or rupes , probably produced by a period of contraction early in its history. Mercury's almost negligible atmosphere consists of atoms blasted off its surface by the solar wind .  Its relatively large iron core and thin mantle have not yet been adequately explained. Hypotheses include that its outer layers were stripped off by a giant impact; or, that it was prevented from fully accreting by the young Sun's energy .

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Venus

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  is close in size to Earth (0.815 Earth masses) and, like Earth, has a thick silicate mantle around an iron core, a substantial atmosphere, and evidence of internal geological activity. It is much drier than Earth, and its atmosphere is ninety times as dense . Venus has no natural satellites. It is the hottest planet, with surface temperatures over 400  °C  (752°F), most likely due to the amount of  greenhouse gases  in the atmosphere. No definitive evidence of current geological activity has been detected on Venus, but it has no magnetic field that would prevent depletion of its substantial atmosphere, which suggests that its atmosphere is frequently replenished by volcanic eruptions .

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Earth

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is the largest and densest of the inner planets, the only one known to have current geological activity, and the only place where  life  is known to exist.   Its liquid  hydrosphere  is unique among the terrestrial planets, and it is the only planet where  plate tectonics  has been observed . Earth's atmosphere is radically different from those of the other planets, having been altered by the presence of life to contain 21% free  oxygen .   It has one natural satellite, the  Moon , the only large satellite of a terrestrial planet in the Solar System .

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Mars

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  is smaller than Earth and Venus (0.107 Earth masses ). It possesses an atmosphere of mostly  carbon dioxide  with a surface pressure of 6.1 millibars (roughly 0.6% of that of Earth ).Its surface, peppered with vast volcanoes, such as  Olympus Mons , and rift valleys, such as  Valles Marineris , shows geological activity that may have persisted until as recently as 2 million years ago. Its red colour comes from  iron oxide  (rust) in its soil .  Mars has two tiny natural satellites ( Deimos  and  Phobos ) thought to be captured  asteroids .

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