Session 2 A presentation

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What is MUSIC *Something people make or do * Reflects its maker or performer *Expresses thoughts, ideas, feelings and emotions *Music is sounds organized with a context and a purpose.:

What is MUSIC *Something people make or do * Reflects its maker or performer *Expresses thoughts, ideas, feelings and emotions *Music is sounds organized with a context and a purpose.

What kind of sounds can be organized in order to make sounds?:

What kind of sounds can be organized in order to make sounds? Nature sounds Ex. Rain, birds, leaves Environment/objects sound Ex. Pencils, pots & pans, shoes People sounds Ex. Voice, sneeze, fart Instrument sounds Ex. Piano, flute, drum

ELEMENTS of MUSIC:

ELEMENTS of MUSIC

Music Elements Rhythm Melody Form Timbre Dynamics Tempo Texture Harmony * *No formal instruction in harmony from K to 3:

Music Elements Rhythm Melody Form Timbre Dynamics Tempo Texture Harmony * *No formal instruction in harmony from K to 3

What is RHYTHM?:

What is RHYTHM? Rhythm is the beat in music Underlying, evenly spaced beats are called steady beats or pulse . The pulse is always “felt” even if it is not ‘’ heard ‘’. Rhythmic patterns are made up of combinations of long and short sounds. The length of sounds is called duration .

What is Rhythm:

What is Rhythm Some steady beats (pulse) are accented. Accented beats are strong beats that mark the grouping of beats. The accent mark looks like this : > The grouping of steady beats is called meter . Steady beats can be grouped in to 2’s- duple, 3’s-triple, or 4’s- quadruple. On a music score, meter is indicated by two symbols: the time signature and the bar lines .

What is MELODY?:

What is MELODY? Melody is the tune of a particular song. It is that “ singable ” part of an instrumental or vocal piece. Melody is made up of both rhythm and pitches . ( rhythm + pitch = melody ) Pitch is the highness or lowness of sounds.

What is MELODY?:

What is MELODY? Tones in melody may move in ascending or descending direction, or they may be repeated. Tones in a melody may move in steps , skips , or leaps. Melodic contour has to do with the “shape” of a melody. Many melodies are either uneven and jagged, or smooth and flowing.

What is MELODY?:

What is MELODY? Melodic range covers the distance between the lowest pitch and the highest pitch in a melody. Many melodies have either a limited range or a wide range. The highest point in a melody is called its climax.

What is MELODY?:

What is MELODY? Pitches are named using letters or so- fa syllables. Pitches are notated on a musical staff , a symbol made up of 5 lines and 4 spaces. A musical staff needs to be marked by a clef sign in order for you to know the identity of a notated pitch.

What is Form:

What is Form Form has something to do with the structure of music , the way sounds are organized in time. Recognizing form depends on your ability to recognize repeated, similar, or contrasting musical materials and musical patterns.

What is Form:

What is Form Motive - the smallest part of a musical composition; Phrase - a musical line that expresses a complete musical idea Period - formed when 2 phrases (antecedent and consequent phrases) are put together in question-and-answer form Section - formed from phrases and periods

Kinds of Form:

Kinds of Form Unitary Form- has only one section Strophic Form- has 2 or more sections that use the same tune but different lyrics Binary Form- has 2 contrasting sections (AB) Ternary Form- has 3 sections (ABC), the third similar to the first (ABA)

Kinds of Form:

Kinds of Form 5. Rondo Form- has contrasting sections in between repetitions of the A section (ABACA) 6. Theme and Variations- two or more sections repeat the same basic melody but presents it in various ways 7. Responsorial form 8. Antiphonal Form

What is Timbre?:

What is Timbre? It has to do with the quality of sound. Also called tone quality Ex. The voice of an old woman is different from the voice of an infant. Ex. The sound of the violin is different from the sound of a jaw’s harp.

Classification of Voices:

Classification of Voices Soprano - high, light and bright female voice Alto – low, thick and heavy female voice Tenor - high, brilliant male voice Bass - low, thick and heavy voice Baritone - medium male voice Contralto - very low female voice (lower than an alto)

Classification of Instruments:

Classification of Instruments Aerophone- played by blowing ; vibrating air column produces sound Chordophone- played by plucking, bowing, or hitting; vibrating string produces sound Idiophones- played by hitting, banging, scraping, shaking, etc ; vibrating body produces sound Membranophone - played by hitting; vibrating skin or membrane produces sound Electrophone- produces sound by means of an electric current .

What is DYNAMICS:

What is DYNAMICS Dynamics deals with volume . It has to do with the loudness or softness of sound.

Common Dynamics Markings:

Common Dynamics Markings Piano (p) – soft Mezzo piano ( mp ) –moderately soft Pianissimo ( pp ) – very soft Pianissisimo ( ppp ) – very, very soft Forte (f) – loud Mezzo forte (mf) – moderately loud Fortissimo ( ff ) – very loud Fortissisimo ( fff ) –very, very loud Crescendo- gradually becoming louder Decrescendo - gradually becoming softer

What is TEMPO:

What is TEMPO Tempo is the speed of music . It has to do with the fastness or slowness of sound. Tempo is determined by the distance between steady beats (or pulse); the closer they are to each other, the faster the music.

Common Tempo Markings:

Common Tempo Markings Largo – very slowly and broadly Andante- slowly, walking tempo Allegro- fast Vivace - very fast and lively Presto- very, very fast Accelerando ( accel .)- gradually becoming faster Ritardando (rit.)- gradually becoming slower Fermata- hold the note longer than its time value A tempo- return to the original speed or tempo

What is TEXTURE:

What is TEXTURE Texture refers to the relationships between one or more “melodies” and other accompanying musical sounds. Like an interweaving of melody and harmony May be light or thin, heavy or thick

What is TEXTURE:

What is TEXTURE Texture is d etermined by – 1. the timbre of voices or instruments 2. the number or size of performers 3. the manner by which one or more melodies are harmonized

What is TEXTURE:

What is TEXTURE Monopony - one melody stands alone, without harmony or accompaniment Homophony- one melody with harmonic/accompaniment Polyphony - 2 or more melodic lines of equal importance, sung or played together.

What is TEXTURE:

What is TEXTURE Mixed Texture = polyphony + homophony Heterophony- 2 or more voices or improvising on the same melody at the same time

HARMONY:

HARMONY *No formal instruction in harmony from K to 3

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