What is Communicative Language Teaching?? : What is Communicative Language Teaching?? Communicative Language: : Communicative Language: Blends listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Is the expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning.
Is comprehensible and meaning-bearing. Is not first learning some vocabulary, then some grammar, then finding something to talk about to use the vocabulary and grammar.
Is not communication at the service of grammar learning.
Is not rote repetition, the exchange of information in a grammar lesson, or simply oral expression. Change of roles for teacher and student : Change of roles for teacher and student Traditionally: Teacher is authority, expert, control figure who transmits knowledge.
“Authoritative knowledge transmitters.”
Lecturing is the task.
THE ATLAS COMPLEX: ATLAS supporting the heavens on their shoulders. Full responsibility. Explanations. Traditionally: Student is the passive audience, vessels into which the information is poured.
Note taking is the task. Audiolingualism : Audiolingualism Instructor was key figure.
Habit formation through repetition, imitation, reinforcement. Parrot.
Memorizing dialogues, practicing sentence patterns.
First language seen to interfere with SLA.
Errors were evidence of bad habits.
No attention given to comprehension
No opportunity to use the language in a meaningful, communicative way, exchanging messages. Output was restricted. CLT : CLT Provides students with opportunities to communicate using language to interpret and express real-life messages. Phases of CLT : Phases of CLT Early CLT was restricted; it was communication with the authority figure asking questions; students not parroting but creating an answer.
Question-answer session with teacher in charge.
Teacher asks question, selects people, even finish the sentence; offers explanation, asks more questions, etc. Next phase of CLT: students allowed to work in pairs and pose questions to one another.
Pair work but with the Atlas-like question and answer model.
Even though they are answering, grammar practice tends to be the real intent.
Teacher monitors for focus on form, rather than on communication and meaning. Next phase CLT : Next phase CLT Although roles had changed, the activities still emphasized formal correctness, not communication.
Controlled exercises plus more open ended conversations.
More natural feel but teacher is still controlling. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) : Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Involves the creation of an implicit (unconscious) linguistic system.
Is complex and consists of different processes.
Is dynamic but slow.
Most L2 learners fall short of native-like competence.
Skill acquisition is different from the creation of an implicit system. Comprehensible Input IS: : Comprehensible Input IS: the language that learners hear that is meant to convey a message. The learner is to attempt to understand what is being said.
language embedded in a communicative interchange no matter how trivial of important.
the learner attending to the meaning in order to respond to the content or to perform a task.
the learner receiving lots of input so they can build up an implicit linguistic system.
embedding clues into the input about the way language works.
a critical factor in language acquisition.
possible when motivation and a low anxiety environment exist. Successful Language Acquisition : Successful Language Acquisition Cannot happen WITHOUT comprehensible input.
Provides consistent and constant exposure to comprehensible input.
Learners need opportunities to use the language in communicative interaction.
Having to use the language pushes the learner to develop communicative language ability!!! The HOW of Acquisition: : The HOW of Acquisition: Input processing: how learners make sense out of the languages they hear and how they get “linguistic data.”
System change: Accommodation: how learners incorporate a grammatical form into an implicit system of the language they are creating. Restructuring: how the incorporation of a form can cause a ripple effect and make other things change without the learner ever knowing.
Output Processing: how learners acquire the ability to make use of implicit knowledge they are acquiring to produce utterances in real time. SLA is dynamic: : SLA is dynamic: As long as learners continue to get input, the implicit system they create evolves constantly.
Acquisition is dynamic (it evolves) but it is slow (takes years to build a system that is anywhere native like).
Particular kinds of errors are made at particular stages. A structure evolves over time. Stages of Development : Stages of Development Learners actively organize language in their heads independently of external influence.
Certain kinds of errors and not others are made at certain times, and something produces certain patterns of L1 acquisition.
Learners possess “internal strategies” for organizing language data and the strategies do not obey outside influences. Food for thought: : Food for thought: Skill acquisition is different from the creation of an implicit system. It is one thing to develop the implicit system. Being able to use it is different.
Skill acquisition happens independently of the creation of the linguistic system.
Languages are UNTEACHABLE: we cannot force or cause the creation of the learner’s implicit system. Not can we force the acquisition of speech making procedures that are essential to skill development.
We can only provide opportunities for acquisition to happen by providing chances to express real information, not merely information in drills.