teaching approaches

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The Grammar-Translation Method : 

The Grammar-Translation Method Introduction

Objectives of GTM : 

Objectives of GTM To be able to read literature written in the target language To be able to translate from one language to another To develop reading and writing skill

Key Features of GTM : 

Key Features of GTM Native language Vocabulary / grammatical rules Accuracy /translation Language skills

Advantages of GTM : 

Advantages of GTM An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure Few demands on teachers Least stressful for students

Disadvantage of GTM : 

Disadvantage of GTM Wrong idea of what language is Less learners’ motivation Create frustration for learners

Application: Typical Techniques : 

Application: Typical Techniques (1)  Translation of a Literary Passage (2)  Reading Comprehension Questions (3)  Antonyms/Synonyms (4) Cognates (5)  Deductive Application of Rule (6)  Fill-in-the-blanks (7)  Memorization (8)  Use Words in Sentences (9)  Composition

Reading Method : 

Reading Method outstanding following the Committee of Twelve in 1900 in the U.S.

The Purpose : 

The Purpose For people who do not travel abroad, reading is a useful skill to learn a foreign language.

GTM & RM : 

GTM & RM ˙Similarity Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. ˙Diversity GTM read difficult texts begun early GTM has Single Vocabulary lists

The Characteristic : 

The Characteristic (1)Acquisition of vocabulary> Grammatical skill (2)Control vocabulary difficulty (3)Reading Comprehension > Pronunciation and Conversational Skills (4)Translation reappear

Advantages with using RM : 

Advantages with using RM ˙Good for people who do not travel abroad ˙Teacher does not need to have good oral skill

Disadvantages with using RM : 

Disadvantages with using RM ˙Narrow skill ability ˙Unbalanced learning

Typical Procedure in a RM Course : 

Typical Procedure in a RM Course (1)Read a lot (2)Expand vocabulary fast

The Direct Method : 

The Direct Method Introduction

Rationale of DM : 

Rationale of DM First language learning process (1) No grammar (2) No mother tongue (3) No translation (4) Postponement of printed word (5) Postponement of written word

Key Features of DM : 

Key Features of DM Target language Vocabulary / grammar Teaching point Language skills

Guidelines of DM for teaching oral language : 

Guidelines of DM for teaching oral language Demonstrate Act Ask questions Correct Use sentences Make students speak much Use lesson plan Follow plan Keep the pace of the students Speak normally Speak naturally Take it easy

Advantages of DM : 

Advantages of DM An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target communicatively.

Disadvantage of DM : 

Disadvantage of DM Difficult to implement in public secondary school education Time-wasting Not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language

Application: Typical Techniques : 

Application: Typical Techniques (1)  Reading Aloud (2)  Question and Answer Exercise (3)  Student Self-Correction (4) Conversation Practice (5)  Fill-in-the-blank Exercise (6)  Dictation (7)  Paragraph Writing

The Audiolingual Method : 

The Audiolingual Method ˙Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA ˙Popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s

The Purpose : 

The Purpose Focus on students’ pronunciation, and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills

Direct Method & ALM : 

Direct Method & ALM ˙Similarity taught language directly without using L1 ˙Diversity ALM drilled students without teaching vocabulary

Structural Linguistics & ALM : 

Structural Linguistics & ALM ˙Mastering the building blocks ˙Learning the rules

Behaviorism & ALM - principles : 

Behaviorism & ALM - principles ˙Language learning is habit-formation ˙Mistakes should be avoided ˙Spoken language comes before written language ˙Dialogues and drill centered

Behaviorism & ALM - elements : 

Behaviorism & ALM - elements ˙Stimulus ˙Response ˙Reinforcement

The Characteristic : 

The Characteristic (1) Imitation (2) repetition (3) Positively reinforced (4) Over learn *Emphasize in the “Form”, not the “Meaning”

Advantages with using ALM : 

Advantages with using ALM ˙Allows Students to communicate quickly ˙Students became good at pattern

Disadvantages with using ALM : 

Disadvantages with using ALM ˙Turn Students into parrots ˙Boring and mindless ˙Reduce the motivation

Typical Procedure in an ALM Course : 

Typical Procedure in an ALM Course (1)hear a dialogue (2)repeat the dialogue (3)key words or structures changed (4)practice substitutions in the pattern drills

The Cognitive Approach : 

The Cognitive Approach Introduction & Rationale

Key Features : 

Key Features Instruction is often individualized Vocabulary / grammar Language skills Demands on teachers

Application: Cognitive approach to grammar teaching : 

Application: Cognitive approach to grammar teaching Grammar teaching should be planned and systematic Necessary grammar instruction Extensive exposure to instructed grammar points Production activities Group work and task performance Postlesson activities

Total Physical Response/TPR (James Asher , 1966) : 

Total Physical Response/TPR (James Asher , 1966) founded by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San José State University, California, USA

The Purpose : 

The Purpose To have basic oral expression ability through using imperative sentences.

The Characteristic : 

The Characteristic (1)retention (2)Direct commands (3)No stress (4)Listen first *Emphasize in the “Meaning”, not the “Form”

Advantages with using TPR : 

Advantages with using TPR ˙Fun. ˙Memorable. ˙Good for kinesthetic learners. ˙No matter the class size. >>>

Advantages with using TPR : 

Advantages with using TPR ˙Work well with mixed-ability classes. ˙No requirement for many preparation or materials. ˙Effective with young learners. ˙Involves both left and right-brained learning

Disadvantages with using TPR : 

Disadvantages with using TPR ˙Students feel shy ˙Less useful for upper levels ˙overuse TPR

Typical Procedure in a TPR Course : 

Typical Procedure in a TPR Course (1)input (2)comprehension (3)express

Oral-Situational Approach : 

Oral-Situational Approach Developed in Britain and popular between the 1930s and 1960s

Main difference between DM and OSA : 

Main difference between DM and OSA Oral-Situational Approach has a systematic planed vocabulary and grammar rules, DM hasn’t.

Main difference between ALM &OSA : 

Main difference between ALM &OSA Oral-Situational Approach doesn’t mention about reinforcement, ALM does.

Purpose : 

Purpose Teaching a practical skill of L2 through copy the way children acquire L1

Characteristic : 

Characteristic ˙Start from spoken language ˙Avoid errors ˙Teacher-centered ˙Focus on Listening and speaking ˙Chosen the vocabulary ˙The first method uses structural syllabus

Advantages with using OSA : 

Advantages with using OSA ˙Bring the reality situation in the classroom ˙Scheduled progress

Disadvantages with using OSA : 

Disadvantages with using OSA ˙Turn students into parrots ˙Boring and mindless ˙Reduce the motivation

Typical Procedure : 

Typical Procedure ˙Teacher gave a topic ˙Demonstrate with teaching aids ˙Key word changed

Suggestopedia : 

Suggestopedia The name is from the words suggestion and pedagogy. Developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian psychologist Georgi Lozanov

Attention and memory studies : 

Attention and memory studies (Adapted from: Richards & Rodgers 2001 Approaches & Methods in Language Teaching Cambridge)

Purpose : 

Purpose Desuggest the psychological barriers to learn vocabulary and conversation

Characteristic : 

Characteristic ˙Present text with music ˙Practiced breathing ˙Comfortable ˙Choose target language name ˙Colorful posters on the wall ˙Liberate instead of teach

Elements to Suggestopedia : 

Elements to Suggestopedia ˙Authority ˙Infantilization ˙Double-planedness ˙Intonation, Rhythm and concert pseudo-passiveness

Advantages with using Suggestopedia : 

Advantages with using Suggestopedia ˙Increase oral proficiency ˙Lower classroom anxiety

Disadvantages with using Suggestopedia : 

Disadvantages with using Suggestopedia ˙Unavailable of music and comfortable chair ˙No advanced comprehension technique

Typical Procedure : 

Typical Procedure ˙Deciphering ˙Concert session ˙Elaboration ˙Production

Community Language Learning : 

Community Language Learning Developed by Charles Curran and his associates in 1970s

Comparison : 

Comparison

Psychological Requirements for Successful Learning : 

Psychological Requirements for Successful Learning ˙S stands for security ˙A stands for attention and aggression ˙R stands for retention and reflection ˙D represents discrimination

Purpose : 

Purpose The teacher can successfully transfer his or her knowledge and proficiency in the L2 to the students; Specific purposes are not mentioned.

Characteristic : 

Characteristic ˙Client-Counselor and Learner-Knower relationships ˙Humanistic Techniques ˙Code Alternation

Advantages with using CLL : 

Advantages with using CLL ˙Remove the feeling of distance and insecure ˙Counselor allows the learner to decide the topic

Disadvantages with using CLL : 

Disadvantages with using CLL ˙Teacher may become too indirective ˙Confidence based on an inductive strategy for learning

Typical Procedure : 

Typical Procedure ˙Translation ˙Group Work ˙Recording ˙Transcription ˙Analysis ˙Reflection and observation

Main Steps of Procedure of CLL : 

Main Steps of Procedure of CLL ˙Investment ˙Reflection

The Comprehension-based Approach(Natural Approach) : 

The Comprehension-based Approach(Natural Approach) Introduction

Features of NA : 

Features of NA Listening comprehension is very important Begin by listening to meaningful speech Speak when ready One step beyond their level of competence Error correction Appropriate input for the learners Adopt freely from various method sources

The NA v.s. The DM : 

The NA v.s. The DM The NA emphasize on 1.Exposure / input 2.Optimizing emotional preparedness 3.A prolonged period of hearing The DM emphasize on 1.Teach monologue 2.Direct repetition 3.Formal Q/A 4.Accurate production

Objectives of NA : 

Objectives of NA To be able to function adequately in the target situation. To be able to convey their requests and idea

Teacher and Student Roles : 

Teacher and Student Roles Teacher Roles The primary source Create a classroom atmosphere Choose a rich mix of classroom activities Student Roles Participator ; responder

The Communicative Approach : 

The Communicative Approach Introduction

Features of CA : 

Features of CA Communicative intent The use of authentic materials Activities are often carried out

Teacher and Student Roles : 

Teacher and Student Roles Teacher roles (1) To facilitate communication (2) To be a co-communicator Student roles Communicator

Advantages of the CA : 

Advantages of the CA (1) Students will be more motivated (2) Students have opportunities to express (3) Student security is enhanced

Disadvantages of the CA : 

Disadvantages of the CA No environment of ESL Difficulty in evaluating students’ performance Ignore the training of reading and writing

Typical techniques : 

Typical techniques Authentic materials Scrambled sentences Language games Picture strip story Role play

Task-Based Approach : 

Task-Based Approach Introduction

Principles of TBA : 

Principles of TBA Tasks provide both the input and output processing Task activity and achievement are motivational Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned

Teacher and Student Roles : 

Teacher and Student Roles Teacher roles (1) Selector and sequencer of tasks (2) Preparing learners for tasks (3) Consciousness-raising Student roles (1)Group participant (2)Monitor (3)Risk-Taker and innovator

Advantages of TBA : 

Advantages of TBA (1) Students are free of language control (2) Students have more varied exposure to language (3) Enjoyable and motivating

Disadvantages of TBA : 

Disadvantages of TBA focus on meaning could come at the expense of focus on form

Typical techniques : 

Typical techniques Lesson plans should be designed to cover 3 stages in the TBA (1)Pre-task stage (2)During-task stage (3)Post-task stage