Importance of Forest and Wildlife

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Importance of Forest and Wildlife:

Importance of F orest and Wildlife

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Importance of Forest

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Forest has been of great importance to mankind since prehistoric days. 60% of the earth once covered with forest. With the development of civilization, large areas have been cleared to make way for farms, towns and roads. Today about 30% of earth is still forested.  The economic value of forests, supply many products like wood from trees as lumber, plywood and fuel wood or charcoal. Processed wood products include cellophane, plastics, synthetic fibers like rayon and nylon. Other uses; fruits, nuts and spices are gathered from the forest. Many medicinal plants such as camphor, cinchona, coca also come from the forests. Forests help to conserve soil by preventing rapid runoff of water after heavy rain and minimizing flooding. Trees take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into air, which is a great benefit to mankind.  Forests influence local and global climate. The forest is also vital as a watershed. Because of the thick humus layer, loose soil, and soil-retaining powers of the trees' long roots, forests are vitally important for preserving adequate water supplies. 

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Importance of Wildlife

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The wild animals and other beings get enough protection from the solar heat, temperature and the leaf cover formed on the earth gives cooling effect to the earth. . Since trees absorb heat, we shouldn't cut them down. Natural wildlife is important because it is part of the natural circle of life. If bears start to die off,{ as it would be too hot without trees/ forests} than the trout are going to become overpopulated and other scavengers that rely on bears will begin to starve. Without eagles and other birds of prey, rodents' population will increase which will cause more rodents in the cities and towns. Forests offer privacy, reduce light reflection, offer a sound barrier and help guide wind direction and speed.  • Forest help in giving the direction of wind and its speed.  • Forest helps in keeping environment healthy and beautiful.  • Forests also minimize noise pollution.  they help in the occurrence of rain fall ,reduces soil erosion

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Flora and Fauna

Flora:

Flora Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous-native plant life. Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, special environment, or climate. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of a historic era as in fossil flora. Lastly, floras may be subdivided by special environments: Native flora. The native and indigenous flora of an area. Agricultural and Horticultural flora (garden flora). The plants that are deliberately grown by humans. Weed flora. Traditionally this classification was applied to plants regarded as undesirable, and studied in efforts to control or eradicate them. Today the designation is less often used as a classification of plant life, since it includes three different types of plants: weedy species, invasive species (that may or may not be weedy), and native and introduced non-weedy species that are agriculturally undesirable. Many native plants previously considered weeds have been shown to be beneficial or even necessary to various ecosystems. Bacterial organisms are sometimes included in a flora, and sometimes the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately.

Fauna:

Fauna Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. "Fauna" comes from the Latin names of Fauna, a Roman goddess of earth and fertility Zoologists and paleontologists use  fauna  to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess Shale fauna". It also can refer to a given subset of the fauna of a given region, as in: "... the Amazon Basin has a rich ant fauna...". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils.

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Diverse Flora & Fauna

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India has a wide variety of flora and fauna like the diverse cultures and religions in India. The Indian subcontinent’s flora and fauna is an eye candy for its nature lovers. Around 23.68% of India is covered by forest. Flora and Fauna is the mirror of a country. The richness of flora & fauna is reflected in the mélange of India's climate and topography. The Flora (Vegetation or forests) provides home to many rare and unique species (Fauna or animals). These vast patches of forests vary from region to region and each have some unique feature, be it its flora, fauna, avi-fauna or aqua-fauna.

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Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants India is known for its herbs and spices from ancient times. Some 2,000 plants have been described in Ayurveda and at least 500 are in regular use. The world conservation union’s red list has named 352 medicinal plants of which 52 are critically threatened and 49 endangered. The commonly used plants in India are:

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Various Medicinal Plants

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Sarpagandha : Used to treat blood pressure, it is found only in India. Jamun : The juice from ripe fruit is used to prepare vinegar which is carminative and diuretic, and has digestive properties. The powder of the seed is used for controlling diabetes.

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Arjun : The fresh juice of leaves is a cure for earache. It is also used to regulate blood pressure. Babool : Leaves are used as a cure for eye sores. Its gum is used as a tonic.

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Neem : Has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties. Tulsi plant : Is used to cure cough and cold.

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Reasons for deforestation and measures to conserve forest

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Major causes for deforestation Expansion of Agriculture: With increase in the demands for agricultural products, more and more land is brought under cultivation for which forests are destroyed and land water is reclaimed. Such an expansion is marked with more ecological destruction. In tropical regions of the world, as much of the mineral material is lodged in the plant biomass, its removal takes away large part of nutrients. The soil becomes poorest thus is unable to support farming for long duration. Shifting Cultivation: S hifting cultivation has occurred due to poor fertility of the soil. In this cultivation a small patch of tropical forests is cleared, vegetation, destroyed and burned. Crops are grown as long as the soil is productive, after which the cultivation is abandoned, and a cultivations move on to fresh patch of land. Fire Wood Collection: Fire wood collection contributes much to the depletion of tree cover. Denser forests usually produced a lot of combustible material in the form of dead twigs, leaves etc.There is hardly any need of cutting down live trees in densely wooded localities. However in case of lightly wooded forests, where the pressure demands is usually higher, a slow thinning of wood lands occurs due to regular foraging of villagers.

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For the conservation of forests, following steps can be taken: (a) Conservation of forest is a national problem so it must be tackled with perfect coordination between forest department and other departments. (b) People's participation in the conservation of forests is of vital importance. So, we must get them involved in this national task. (c) The cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs. (d) Afforestation or special programmers like Van Mahotsava should be launched on grand scale. (e) Celebrations of all functions, festivals should precede with tree-plantation. (f) Cutting of timber and other forest produce should be restricted. (g) Grasslands should be regenerated. (h) Forest conservation Act 1980 should be strictly implemented to check deforestation. (i) Several centers of excellence have been setup and awards should be instituted. Method of forest conservation

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Some Endangered Animals

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  Jaguars G reen M acaw M ountain Gorilla Albino Peacock

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G olden-cheeked Warbler Sumatran Orangutans G iant P anda

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