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MoCA & MMSE Assessments:

MoCA & MMSE Assessments By Faith Hoopingarner & Lekesha Land


MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment

MoCA Purpose:

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment ( MoCA ): rapid screening instrument for mild cognitive dysfunction . It assesses different cognitive domains: attention, concentration, executive functions, memory, language , visuoconstructional skills, conceptual thinking, abstraction and orientation . The MoCA is approximately 10 minutes to administer. The total possible score= 30 points; a score of > 26 is considered normal. MoCA Purpose


Populations:Validated for individual 55-85 years old Used on individuals with varying conditions including Alzheimer’s disease, Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Parkinson’s disease, Lewy Body, Fronto -temporal dementia, Multiple Sclerosis, Huntington disease, Brain Tumors, ALS, Sleep Apnea, Heart Failure, Substance abuse, Schizophrenia, HIV, and Head Trauma. MoCA

MoCA Format and Scoring:

MoCA Format and Scoring

MoCA and OTPF:

MoCA and OTPF Body Functions Memory Thought Attention Higher Level C ognitive F unction Leisure ADLs Process Skills Attends Sequencing Rest & Sleep Work Social Participation IADLs

MoCA Advantages & Disadvantages:

MoCA Advantages & Disadvantages Brief screening tool Available at Available in other languages Easy to administer Free Further assessment will be needed to determine depth of cognitive issues in other areas

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE):

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)

MMSE Purpose:

The purpose of this assessment is to screen for cognitive impairment.   It is mainly used in assessing the level of cognitive impairment among the elderly in particular, as cognitive impairment is known to lead to a higher morbidity and mortality rate . The MMSE consists of 11 questions that tests five areas of cognitive function: orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language. The maximum score is 30; a score of < or = 23 is indicative of cognitive impairment, and possibly dementia. ( Lancu & Olmer , 2006) MMSE Purpose

MMSE Population and Format :

POPULATION: The MMSE is designed for use in the older, community dwelling, hospitalized and institutionalized adult populations.   FORMAT:   The MMSE is a screen, mostly verbal, and basically conducted in an i nterview format. The MMSE assessment of an older adult’s cognitive function is best achieved when it is done routinely, systematically and thoroughly. ( Lancu & Olmer , 2006) MMSE Population and Format

MMSE and the OTPF:

  The MMSE mainly addresses function under the categories of BODY FUNCTIONS & PROCESS SKILLS. BODY FUNCTIONS Specific Mental Functions:   Memory: including immediate and short term memory   Experience of self and time: Awareness of one’s identity, body, and position in the reality of one’s environment and of time   Attention : Sustained shifting and divided attention, concentration, and distractibility.   Higher-level cognitive: praxis (motor planning ) (AOTA, 2002)   MMSE and the OTPF

MMSE and the OTPF (cont.):

Global Mental Functions Orientation : orientation to person, place, time, self, and others. Process Skills Social Interaction Skills :   Matches language : Uses a tone of voice, dialect, and level of language that are socially appropriate and matched to the social partner’s abilities and level of understanding (AOTA, 2002)     MMSE and the OTPF (cont.)

MMSE Advantages & Disadvantages:

  ADVANTAGES Brief   Quantitative measurement for the severity of cognitive impairment   Documents cognitive changes over time   Construct validity of the test is considered good, proving the MMSE measures possesses high levels of sensitivity for moderate-severe cognitive impairment. However, the MMSE possesses lower levels of sensitivity for mild degrees of cognitive impairment . DISADVANTAGES   Disadvantages of the MMSE include difficulty to identify mild cognitive impairment and difficulty in recording changes in cases of severe dementia. Furthermore, age, education, cultural and socioeconomic background can cause a considerable bias in the MMSE's scores. ( Lancu & Olmer , 2006) MMSE Advantages & Disadvantages

References: :

  Lancu , I., & Olmer , A. (2006). [The minimental state examination --an up-to-date review]. Harefuah , 145 (9), 687-90.   American Occupational Therapy Association. (2002). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain & process . Amer Occupational Therapy Assn . References:

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