Connectors

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Connectors in English

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Discourse markers:

Discourse markers “ linkers ”

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Linkers are words and expressions that help us understand: The connection between what a speaker is saying and what has already been said. The connection between what a speaker has said and what he/she is going to say.

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers RESULT : It was freezing cold so I wore a thick coat . REASON : I won’t do it because it’s too risky. PURPOSE : I’m studying English to get a better job. CONTRAST : I liked the hat but it was too small.

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RESULT so as a result therefore consequently

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers RESULT So is the most common way of introducing a clause of result. It was freezing cold, so I wore a thick coat . As a result , therefore , and consequently (more formal than so ) are often used at the beginning of a sentence or clause. It snowed hard all night. As a result the airport was closed the following morning. We regret that you do not have the necessary qualifications, and therefore / consequently we are unable to offer you the job.

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers When the marker is at the beginning of a clause, it is usually preceded by a comma, or comma + and . We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project. RESULT Therefore and consequently can also be used before a main verb, e.g. We have therefore/consequently decided not to offer you the job.

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REASON because as since because of due to owing to

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers Because , as , and since (more formal) are used to introduce clauses giving a reason and are synonyms. As is often used at the beginning of a sentence. As the weather is so awful, we’ve decided not to go out. I have stopped writing to her, because / as / since she never answers me. REASON

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers Due to and owing to are more formal than because of . Because of , due to , and owing to also express the reason for something. They are usually followed by a noun. The plane was late because of the fog. Flight 341 has been delayed due to / owing to adverse weather conditions. REASON

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PURPOSE to in order to so as to so (that) in case

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers To , in order to , and so as to introduce a clause of purpose and are all followed by an infinitive. So as to and in order to are more formal. She closed the door quietly so as not to/in order not to wake the baby. NOT She closed the door quietly not to wake the baby. For negative purpose use in order not to or so as not to . I did a language course to/in order to/so as to improve my English. PURPOSE

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers You can also use so (that) + can / could + verb or will / would + verb to express purpose. You can leave out that in informal speech and writing. You must use so (that) when there is a change of subject in the result clause. e.g. She put a rug over the baby so (that) he wouldn’t be cold. They moved to London so (that) they could see their grandchildren more often. PURPOSE

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers Use in case + clause when you do something in order to be ready for future situations/problems or to avoid them. I’m not going to tell Ann in case she tells everyone else. I’ll take the umbrella in case it rains. PURPOSE

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CONTRAST but yet however nevertheless nonetheless although even though though in spite of despite

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers But is the most common and informal way of introducing contrast, and is normally used to link two contrasting points within a sentence. Yet is used in the same way, but is more formal/literary. We enjoyed the concert, but we didn’t have very good seats. Agnes was attracted to the stranger, yet something in her head was telling her not to get close to him. CONTRAST

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Nevertheless is more formal/literary than however . Nonetheless is an alternative to nevertheless . 1A discourse markers (1): linkers However and nevertheless are normally used at the beginning of a sentence, to connect it to the previous one. They are usually followed by a comma. We enjoyed the concert. However , we didn’t have very good seats. Agnes was attracted to the stranger. Nevertheless , something in her head was telling her not to get close to him. CONTRAST

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1A discourse markers (1): linkers Even though is more emphatic than although . Though is more common in informal speech. ! Though can also be used at the end of a phrase as a comment adverb, e.g. He’s very friendly – a bit mean, though . We enjoyed the concert although/even though /though we didn’t have very good seats. CONTRAST

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After in spite of and despite you must use a gerund, a noun, or the fact that + clause. 1A discourse markers (1): linkers In spite of being attracted to the stranger, something in Agnes’s head was telling her not to get close to him. Despite being attracted to the stranger, Despite her attraction to the stranger… Despite the fact that she was attracted to the stranger… CONTRAST

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SUMMARY: Result Reason Purpose Contrast 1A discourse markers (1): linkers so, as a result, therefore, consequently because, as, since, because of, due to, owing to to, in order to, so as to, so (that), in case but, yet, however, nevertheless, nonetheless although, even though, though, in spite of, despite

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