AJM_Unplugged_but_Connected

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It is an Wireless Power Transfer document

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Unplugged but Connected - Review of Contactless Energy Transfer Systems :

Unplugged but Connected - Review of Contactless Energy Transfer Systems Marian P. Kazmierkowski (1),(2) Artur J. Moradewicz (2) (1) Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; (2) Electrotechnical Institute ( IEl ), Warsaw, Poland 1

Outline :

Outline Introduction Classification of CET systems Acoustic CET systems Light CET systems Capacitive CET systems Inductive CET systems (ICET) Basic converters for ICET Bidirectional ICET battery charger Summary and Conclusions 2

Introduction :

Introduction The pioniering work by N. Tesla: „The Future of the Wireless Art.”, Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony , 1908, pp. 67-71 This technology becomes very popular in the past years: CET – Contactless (Contact-free) Energy Transfer CPT - Contactless (Contact-free) Power Transfer WPT – Wireless Power Transfer 3

Benefits of CET systems :

Benefits of CET systems  Elimination of cables and connector s  Safety - spark and arc is eliminated  Freedom of movement  System simplification and reliability increase  Reduction of vulnerability to mechanical damages  Space savings 4

Applications :

Applications Automotive industry Robotics and sensors Production machine s Automatic guided vehicles 5

Applications :

Applications Inductive charging Biomedical Mobile devices When wired energy is not suitable 6

Classification of CET systems :

Classification of CET systems 7

Acoustic CET systems :

Acoustic CET systems Medium : air, living tissue , metal or other solid wall , etc . 8

Capacitive CET systems :

Capacitive CET systems Energy is transferred via electrical field between Primary and Secondary plates Metal plates are coated with dielectric materials 9

Light (Optical) CET systems :

Light (Optical) CET systems LPB – Laser Power Beaming system Medium: air 10

Inductive CET system :

Inductive CET system 11

Overview of CET technologies :

Overview of CET technologies T echnology ( Medium ) Converter switching frequency Outp u t Power Distance length E fficienc y Properties Typical Applications - [kHz] [W] [mm] [%] - - Acoustic ( Sound ) 20 - 100 0.0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0.2 – 1 1- 300 1 - 80 Strong directional . High distance / size When EM waves are not allowed Through - metal-wall Sensors nuclear techn. Biomedical Ultrasonic CET Light ( Optical EM) (10 12 ) 700-1400 nm 1 - 100 Long (m – km) 10 - 50 Laser beaming Long distance Thermal derating Space , and Terrestrial technolog. Biomedical Capacitive (Electric field) 100 kHz – several MHz 1 - 50 Low 0.1 – 0.5 50- 80 Matal penetration Reduced EMI Low standing power losses LED supply Mobile phones Playing robots Sensors Inductive ( Magnetic field) 20kHz – several MHz 1W – 200kW 0.2 - 2000 ≥ 80 - 95 High efficiency High EMI Low distanse / size No metal penetration abilities EV&Battery c hargers Robots & manipulators Cranes & AG-EV Mobile devices Sensors & actuators 12

Inductive CET systems (ICET) :

Inductive CET systems (ICET) High power : Welding , Heating, Drives , Assembling , Battery charger Medium power : P eripherals Servo drives Actuators … Low power : Sensors, Communication devices , Electronics, … 13

Problems of ICET systems :

Problems of ICET systems  Weak coupling factor  L ow magnetizing inductance  Large leakage inductance  Low er efficiency  Limited output power range  Unpredictible working conditions  Coupling changes  Interference from metalic objects - „field shielding“ EFFECT: high magnetizing current and high primary winding loss high flux leakage and high level EMC emissions 14

Half-bridge unipolar converter :

Half-bridge unipolar converter 15

Half-bridge bipolar converter :

Half-bridge bipolar converter 16

Full-bridge bipolar converter :

Full-bridge bipolar converter 17

Three-phase bridge converter :

Three-phase bridge converter 18

Variants of compensation circuits :

Variants of compensation circuits 19

Basic parameters of comp. circuits :

Basic parameters of comp. circuits SS Compensation SP Compensation Circuit Parameter s Voltage Transfer Function Resonan t Angular Frequency Resonant Capacitor Circuit Quality Factor Equivalent Load Resistance 20

Overview of ICET Control :

Overview of ICET Control 21

Overview of ICET Control :

Overview of ICET Control 22

Overview of ICET Control :

Overview of ICET Control 23

Overview of ICET Control :

Overview of ICET Control 24

ICET - multiple secondary winding :

ICET - multiple secondary winding 25

ICET – cascaded transformers :

ICET – cascaded transformers 26

ICET – sliding transformer :

ICET – sliding transformer From the catalog VAHLE „CPS Contactlless power supply system” 27

ICET parameters of rotatable transformer :

ICET parameters of rotatable transformer 28

PowerPoint Presentation:

ICET parameters of coreless transformer 29

ICET – Battery charging system :

ICET – Battery charging system 30

Charging time :

Charging time Type of Charging Station *) Type of Grid Connection Normal Charging Single-Phase Grid Normal Charging Three-Phase Grid Fast Charging U=230V AC I=16A P=3,7kW U=400V AC I=32A P=22/43kW U=500V AC I=250A P=220kW U=600V DC I=400A P=240kW Charging time Capacity of Battery Pack (A) (B) (C) (C) 40kWh ca. 11h 60-120 min ca. 10 min ca. 10 min 20kWh ca. 5,5h 30-60 min ca. 5 min ca. 5 min 10kWh ca. 3h 15-30 min < 5min < 5min *) IEC 61851-1, VDE 0122-1 31

Bi-directional ICET for V2G system :

Bi-directional ICET for V2G system Energy Flow Direction 32

Bi-directional ICET :

Bi-directional ICET 33

View of 15kW ICET laboratory setup :

View of 15kW ICET laboratory setup 34

Results of Inductive CET :

Results of Inductive CET Simulation Experimental 35

Results of Inductive CET :

Results of Inductive CET Simulation Experimental 36

Efficiency of Inductive CET :

Efficiency of Inductive CET Experimental 37

Efficiency of Inductive CET :

Efficiency of Inductive CET Experimental 17cm air gap 6 cm air gap 38

PowerPoint Presentation:

39 Results of Inductive CET Experimental CH1 – primary voltage CH2 – primary current 25 A/div CH3 – secondary current 25 A/div CH4 – secondary voltage M – primary power 10 kW/div o ver 30kW and 17cm air gap

Overview of Inductive CET :

Overview of Inductive CET Transformer construction DC - AC converter Output Power Output Voltage Air Gap length Max. efficiency Application s Primary side Secondary side Topology Freq. [kHz] [W] [V] [mm] [%] - 1 Single winding ferrite core Single winding ferrite core Full bridge MOSFET/IGBT 20 - 100 1 - 150 kW 15 - 350 0.2 – 1 1- 300 ≥ 90 ≥ 80 Battery C hargers [11, 15, 17-20, 38, 39] 2 Single Coreless Triply ferrite core moving Flyback MOSFET 125 0.1 3.0 DC - Biomedical [28, 32] 3 Single winding ferrite Double ferrite rotating Full bridge MOSFET 100 1000 54 DC 0.25 - 2 ≥ 90 Biomedical [28, 32] 4 Single winding coreless Multi-winding ferrite core movable Full bridge MOSFET 80 2 x 240 240V 50 Hz 2 - 5  90 Multiple users, Mobile devices [5, 12, 13] 5 Single winding coreless Multi-winding coreless movable Full/Half Bridge MOSFET 120 Each load 0.01 5 - 15 1000 - 7000 - Industrial sensors and actuators, ABB [ 1,16-17, 27, 33-34] 6 Single winding ferrite core Single winding ferrite core rotatable/linear Full bridge IGBT 20-40 10 – 60 kW 3 x 230 AC 0.2 - 2 ≥ 92 Robots and manipulators [ 10,14, 25, 26] 7 Multiple winding coreless (Desktop) Single winding coreless movable Half bridge MOSFET 100 - 400 30 - 300 12 2 - 5 ≈ 90 Stationary (laptops, phone) or mobile actuators [ 3, 6, 7-9, 35-37] 40

Summary and Conclusion :

Summary and Conclusion ● Contactless Energy Transfer (CET) techniques can be generally divided into four groups based on the medium used: acoustic , light (optical), capacitive and inductive coupling. ● The CET systems are used in power range from µW (sensors, actuators, biomedicine, etc.) till several hundred kW (cranes, electric vehicles, fast battery charging , etc. ) ● The efficiency of inductive CET systems operating at resonance frequency is in the range of 8 0-9 5 % for 10-40 cm distance ; ● There is no one standard solution of CET system s , every design has to consider several specific parameters and user conditions. ● Recently, the research trend favors inductive coupled CETs. It is possible, however, that acoustic and capacitive based CET techniques can offer a new interesting perspective for future research . 41

IEEE Transactions on Ind. Electronics Vol. 60, No. 1, 2013 :

IEEE Transactions on Ind. Electronics Vol. 60, No. 1, 2013 The Special Session on CET systems with18 papers grouped into the following categories:  A review paper on acoustic CET systems,  Capacitive coupled CET systems,  Novel control methods applied for CET systems: adaptive sliding mode, PLL based, etc, Modern inductive coupled CET systems with uni - and bi-directional energy flow direction, multiple and i ndividual users, etc. 42

CET systems :

CET systems Thank you for your attention! 43

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