Meaning and Scope of Research : Meaning and Scope of Research Research is a serious academic activity with a set of objectives to explain or analyze or understand a problem or finding solution for problem Slide 2: “Careful or critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles , diligent investigation in order to ascertain something”
Defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting , organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusion and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. Slide 3: Research is the attempt not only to collect the information but also establish link among various facts and then seek explanation with the unordered events or evidences
Example ( SI & detective)
P – Domain : Domain of protocol : Unconnected concepts , facts etc which remain isolated
C – Domain : Domain of cocepts
Linking various facts using his own imagination , past experience , logical reasoning etc to construct subjective mental images Definition for Research : Definition for Research Research is an organized activity with specific objectives on a problem or issue supported by compilation of related data and facts , involving application of relevant tools of analysis and deriving logically sound inferences based on originality Objectives of Research : Objectives of Research The research may be to understand or become familiar with some phenomena or to get to know more in depth about it
Steam engine to magnet
Different aspects of human physiology
To clearly reveal the characteristics of an individual or a situation or a group like a society .
Before a Criminal is sentenced – Why? ..cont. : ..cont. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else.
Explanation for depletion of ozone in the air
To test a hypothesis about the casual relationship between variables being studied.
The reasons for several malpractices adopted in public distribution Types of research : Types of research Pure Research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice
Not necessarily problem oriented
Discovery of new theory / refinement of existing theo.
Ex : inventions like steam engine, EDP, telecomm.
Applied research is carried on to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision.
It seeks an immediate and practical result
Ex: Marketing research carried on for developing a new market Slide 8: Exploratory Research analyses the data and explores the possibility of obtaining as many relationships as possible .
It is a preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.
“ To see what is there rather than to predict the relationships that will be founded”
EX: Doctor’s initial investigation of a patient suffering from an unfamiliar disease. Descriptive research : Descriptive research It is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation.
It focuses on particular aspects or dimensions of the problem studied
Ex: Consumption behavior of people in a village
It is to discover what is happening , Why it is happening and What can be done
It aims in identifying the cause of the problem and the possible solution for it Slide 10: Evaluation studies
It is for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented
Ex: (Polio drops)
For assessing the impact of development projects
Ex: (irrigation projects)
It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving existing situation
Ex: (Creating awareness about HIV) Experimental Research : Experimental Research It is to assess the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled
To determine whether and in what manner variables are related to each other
The factor , which is influenced , by other factors is called a dependent variable, and the other factors , which influence it are known as independent variables
EX: agricultural productivity (i.e) is a dependent variable and the factors such as soil fertility, irrigation, quality of seed etc. which influences the yield are independent variables. Analytical studies : Analytical studies It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data
It consists of mathematical model
It aims in testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationship
Used to measure variables, comparing groups and examining association with factors Historical research : Historical research Study of past record and other information sources
Its main objective is to draw explanations and generalizations from the past trends in order to understand the present and to anticipate the future.
It is fact finding study
It involves collection of data directly from a population
It requires expert and imaginative planning, careful analysis and rational interpretation of the findings Case Study : Case Study It is an in-depth comprehensive study of a person, a social groups , an episode, a process
Ex: a study of the financial health of a business undertaking
A study of labour participation in management in a particular enterprises
- a study of lify style of working women Field studies : Field studies It is a scientific enquiries aimed at discovering the relations and interactions among sociological, psychological and educational variables in social institutions and actual life situations like communities , school, factories etc
A social or institutional situation is selected and the relations among the attitudes, values, perceptions and behaviours of individuals and groups in the selected situation are studied. Steps in research process : Steps in research process Identification and selection of a research problem
Review of literature:
Preliminary review prior to problem selection
Systematic review after selection
Preparation of notes
Formulation of selected problem
Definition of the problem
Delimitation of the study
Formulations of the objectives of the study and the hypothesis/investigating questions ..cont. : ..cont. 4. Operationalisation of concepts
definition of concepts
construction of indexes/ scales for measuring variables 5. Preparation of the research plan : 5. Preparation of the research plan Statement of the problem
Objectives of the study
Operational definition of the concepts
Geographical area of the study
Tools for collection of data
Plan of analysis
Overview of the research report
Time schedule 6.Construction of tools of data collection : 6.Construction of tools of data collection Identification of data needs
Delineation of data sources
Drafting observation schedule
Pre testing and possible revision 7.Collection of data : 7.Collection of data Experimental / field work
Preparing sample frame
Drawing sample of respondents
Mailing questionnaire to them and follow - up 8.Processing of data : 8.Processing of data Editing
Construction of tables and charts 9.Analysis of data : 9.Analysis of data Statistical treatment
Interpretation of findings
Planning report writing work
Drafting the report and its finalization FORMULATING OF PROBLEM : FORMULATING OF PROBLEM To formulate the problem an intensive reading of a few selected classical articals on the topic is needed
The researcher should read selected literatures, digest, think and reflect upon what is read and digested . then only he gain insight into the chosen problem and able to define and formulate it. WHAT IS FORMULATION ? : WHAT IS FORMULATION ? Formulation means translating and transforming the selected research problem into a scientifically researchable question Three components in the progressive formulation of the problem : Three components in the progressive formulation of the problem 1. The originating questions.
( what one wants to know)
It may put to questions the adequacy of certain concepts
It may be related to empirical validity
It may be related to the structure of an organisation Rationale of the questions : Rationale of the questions Reasons why a particular question is posed
Will the question contribute to theory
It helps to make a discrimination between scientifically important and trivial question Specifying questions : Specifying questions The originating question is decomposed into several specific questions in order to identify the observations /data that will provide answer to them.
These questions should be simple, pointed, clear and empirically verifiable
These investigative questions can afford the solution to the problem selected for research Formulation process : Formulation process 1. Developing title
The title should indicate the core of the study , reflect the real intention of the researcher and show on what is focus.
Ex: “ financing small-scale industries by commercial banks”
Ex: “the financial problem of small scale industries” 2. Building a conceptual model : 2. Building a conceptual model To study about
The nature of the phenomenon
Its properties/elements and their interrelationships should be identified and structured into a frame work
It gives an exact idea of the research problem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied.
A researcher should select a problem with adequate background knowledge Defining the objective of the study : Defining the objective of the study Questions to be answered through the study
Objectives state which elements in the conceptual model- which levels of , which kinds of cases , which properties and which among properties are to be investigated.
The objectives aim at analysis of casual relationship between variables, and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study. Setting investigative questions : Setting investigative questions These specific questions guide the details of the research efforts , including the development of concepts, operational definitions and measurement devices Formulation of hypothesis : Formulation of hypothesis ‘a tentative generalization , the validity of which remains to be tested ‘
“ a proposition which can be put to a test to determine its validity” Operational definitions of concepts : Operational definitions of concepts It specify the measurement parameters variables.
Scales and indices are constructed for measuring abstract concepts. Delimiting the scope of the study : Delimiting the scope of the study A research should take a close view of the implications and dimensions of the selected problem and keep the scope of its study within manageable limits.
The purpose of this delimitation is to avoids confusion and superficiality and promote clarification and successful completion within time limits and available resources Identification and selection of problems in Management : Identification and selection of problems in Management Sources to identify the research problem
Exposure to field situations
Intuition PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION : PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION Selection of the discipline
Economics, commerce, management
Demarcating the broad area or a particular aspect of the selected subject
If the selected subject is financial management, then select capital budgeting, financial leverage, working capital management
Identifying two or more specific topics in the selected broad area Criteria of selection : Criteria of selection Internal criteria
Researcher’s own resources
Financial resources requirement
Researchability of the problem
Its importance and urgency
Novelty of the problem
Usefulness and social relevance