research methodlogy

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fundamentals of research methodlogy


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Meaning and Scope of Research : 

Meaning and Scope of Research Research is a serious academic activity with a set of objectives to explain or analyze or understand a problem or finding solution for problem

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“Careful or critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles , diligent investigation in order to ascertain something” Defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting , organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusion and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

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Research is the attempt not only to collect the information but also establish link among various facts and then seek explanation with the unordered events or evidences Example ( SI & detective) Two stages P – Domain : Domain of protocol : Unconnected concepts , facts etc which remain isolated C – Domain : Domain of cocepts Linking various facts using his own imagination , past experience , logical reasoning etc to construct subjective mental images

Definition for Research : 

Definition for Research Research is an organized activity with specific objectives on a problem or issue supported by compilation of related data and facts , involving application of relevant tools of analysis and deriving logically sound inferences based on originality

Objectives of Research : 

Objectives of Research The research may be to understand or become familiar with some phenomena or to get to know more in depth about it Steam engine to magnet Different aspects of human physiology To clearly reveal the characteristics of an individual or a situation or a group like a society . Before a Criminal is sentenced – Why?

..cont. : 

..cont. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. Explanation for depletion of ozone in the air To test a hypothesis about the casual relationship between variables being studied. The reasons for several malpractices adopted in public distribution

Types of research : 

Types of research Pure Research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice Not necessarily problem oriented Discovery of new theory / refinement of existing theo. Ex : inventions like steam engine, EDP, telecomm. Applied research is carried on to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision. Problem oriented Action directed It seeks an immediate and practical result Ex: Marketing research carried on for developing a new market

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Exploratory Research analyses the data and explores the possibility of obtaining as many relationships as possible . It is a preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. “ To see what is there rather than to predict the relationships that will be founded” EX: Doctor’s initial investigation of a patient suffering from an unfamiliar disease.

Descriptive research : 

Descriptive research It is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It focuses on particular aspects or dimensions of the problem studied Ex: Consumption behavior of people in a village Diagnostic study It is to discover what is happening , Why it is happening and What can be done It aims in identifying the cause of the problem and the possible solution for it

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Evaluation studies It is for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented Ex: (Polio drops) For assessing the impact of development projects Ex: (irrigation projects) Action Research It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving existing situation Ex: (Creating awareness about HIV)

Experimental Research : 

Experimental Research It is to assess the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled To determine whether and in what manner variables are related to each other The factor , which is influenced , by other factors is called a dependent variable, and the other factors , which influence it are known as independent variables EX: agricultural productivity (i.e) is a dependent variable and the factors such as soil fertility, irrigation, quality of seed etc. which influences the yield are independent variables.

Analytical studies : 

Analytical studies It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data It consists of mathematical model It aims in testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationship Used to measure variables, comparing groups and examining association with factors

Historical research : 

Historical research Study of past record and other information sources Its main objective is to draw explanations and generalizations from the past trends in order to understand the present and to anticipate the future. surveys It is fact finding study It involves collection of data directly from a population It requires expert and imaginative planning, careful analysis and rational interpretation of the findings

Case Study : 

Case Study It is an in-depth comprehensive study of a person, a social groups , an episode, a process Ex: a study of the financial health of a business undertaking A study of labour participation in management in a particular enterprises - a study of lify style of working women

Field studies : 

Field studies It is a scientific enquiries aimed at discovering the relations and interactions among sociological, psychological and educational variables in social institutions and actual life situations like communities , school, factories etc A social or institutional situation is selected and the relations among the attitudes, values, perceptions and behaviours of individuals and groups in the selected situation are studied.

Steps in research process : 

Steps in research process Identification and selection of a research problem Review of literature: Preliminary review prior to problem selection Systematic review after selection Preparation of notes Formulation of selected problem Definition of the problem Conceptual mode Delimitation of the study Formulations of the objectives of the study and the hypothesis/investigating questions

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..cont. 4. Operationalisation of concepts definition of concepts construction of indexes/ scales for measuring variables

5. Preparation of the research plan : 

5. Preparation of the research plan Statement of the problem Objectives of the study Hypotheses Operational definition of the concepts Geographical area of the study Methodology Sampling design Tools for collection of data Plan of analysis Overview of the research report Time schedule

6.Construction of tools of data collection : 

6.Construction of tools of data collection Identification of data needs Delineation of data sources Drafting observation schedule Interview schedule Mailed questionnaire Pre testing and possible revision

7.Collection of data : 

7.Collection of data Experimental / field work Preparing sample frame Drawing sample of respondents Interviewing them Mailing questionnaire to them and follow - up

8.Processing of data : 

8.Processing of data Editing Coding Transcription Tabulation Construction of tables and charts

9.Analysis of data : 

9.Analysis of data Statistical treatment Testing hypothesis Interpretation of findings 10.Report writing Planning report writing work Drafting the report and its finalization


FORMULATING OF PROBLEM To formulate the problem an intensive reading of a few selected classical articals on the topic is needed The researcher should read selected literatures, digest, think and reflect upon what is read and digested . then only he gain insight into the chosen problem and able to define and formulate it.


WHAT IS FORMULATION ? Formulation means translating and transforming the selected research problem into a scientifically researchable question

Three components in the progressive formulation of the problem : 

Three components in the progressive formulation of the problem 1. The originating questions. ( what one wants to know) It may put to questions the adequacy of certain concepts It may be related to empirical validity It may be related to the structure of an organisation

Rationale of the questions : 

Rationale of the questions Reasons why a particular question is posed Will the question contribute to theory It helps to make a discrimination between scientifically important and trivial question

Specifying questions : 

Specifying questions The originating question is decomposed into several specific questions in order to identify the observations /data that will provide answer to them. These questions should be simple, pointed, clear and empirically verifiable These investigative questions can afford the solution to the problem selected for research

Formulation process : 

Formulation process 1. Developing title The title should indicate the core of the study , reflect the real intention of the researcher and show on what is focus. Ex: “ financing small-scale industries by commercial banks” Ex: “the financial problem of small scale industries”

2. Building a conceptual model : 

2. Building a conceptual model To study about The nature of the phenomenon Its properties/elements and their interrelationships should be identified and structured into a frame work It gives an exact idea of the research problem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied. A researcher should select a problem with adequate background knowledge

Defining the objective of the study : 

Defining the objective of the study Questions to be answered through the study Objectives state which elements in the conceptual model- which levels of , which kinds of cases , which properties and which among properties are to be investigated. The objectives aim at analysis of casual relationship between variables, and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study.

Setting investigative questions : 

Setting investigative questions These specific questions guide the details of the research efforts , including the development of concepts, operational definitions and measurement devices

Formulation of hypothesis : 

Formulation of hypothesis ‘a tentative generalization , the validity of which remains to be tested ‘ “ a proposition which can be put to a test to determine its validity”

Operational definitions of concepts : 

Operational definitions of concepts It specify the measurement parameters variables. Scales and indices are constructed for measuring abstract concepts.

Delimiting the scope of the study : 

Delimiting the scope of the study A research should take a close view of the implications and dimensions of the selected problem and keep the scope of its study within manageable limits. The purpose of this delimitation is to avoids confusion and superficiality and promote clarification and successful completion within time limits and available resources

Identification and selection of problems in Management : 

Identification and selection of problems in Management Sources to identify the research problem Readings Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition


PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION Selection of the discipline Economics, commerce, management Demarcating the broad area or a particular aspect of the selected subject If the selected subject is financial management, then select capital budgeting, financial leverage, working capital management Identifying two or more specific topics in the selected broad area

Criteria of selection : 

Criteria of selection Internal criteria Researcher’s interest Researcher’s competence Researcher’s own resources Financial resources requirement Time requirement External criteria Researchability of the problem Its importance and urgency Novelty of the problem Feasibility Facilities Usefulness and social relevance Research personnel

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