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Presentation Transcript

Malnutrition Defined: 

Malnutrition Defined Text extracted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2004


Malnutrition Overnutrition Undernutrition Secondary Malnutrition Micronutrient Malnutrition Protein Energy Malnutrition Most important Protein Energy Malnutrition


Overnutrition Consumption of too many calories obesity

Secondary Malnutrition: 

Secondary Malnutrition Diet normal Food not digested or absorbed Diarrhea Parasites Tapeworm

Micronutrient Malnutrition: 

Micronutrient Malnutrition Deficiency in: Vitamin A Iodine Iron Zinc Calcium Vitamin D B Vitamins Vitamin C Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency)

Vitamin A Deficiency: 

Vitamin A Deficiency 500,000 children become blind each year xerophthalmia Half of these will die within a year of becoming blind Rice diet lacking green vegetables Vitamin supplements help: cost $3/year Golden Rice could help

Iodine Deficiency: 

Iodine Deficiency Iodine deficiency affects 740 million people worldwide single greatest cause of preventable brain damage in babies Goiter Stillbirth Miscarriages Mental Retardation Prevented by iodized salt Best sources of natural iodine Sea weed Sea food Goiter (thyroid enlargement)

Iron Deficiency Anemia: 

Iron Deficiency Anemia Affects 2 billion people, 90% live in developing countries 39% of preschool children 52% of pregnant women Reduced physical activity mental activity Increased birth mortality Worms Malaria HIV High iron rice could help

Other Deficiencies: 

Other Deficiencies Zinc Growth retardation delayed sexual maturation skin and eye lesions 48% of world at risk for zinc deficiency Calcium Osteoporosis: bone loss Vitamin D Rickets: bone malformation

Other Deficiencies: 

Other Deficiencies Vitamin C Causes Scurvy: problem in refugee camps Niacin Causes Pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia Due to diet high in maize (low in tryptophan) Thiamin Causes Beriberi Due to diet high in polished rice Folate Birth defects: Anancephaly and Spina Bifida

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM): 

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Underconsumption of calories or protein Most important form of malnutrition Associated with poverty Not enough food Poor quality food Kwashiorkor Extreme protein deficiency Marasmus Extreme calorie deficiency Kwashiorkor


Kwashiorkor Protein deficiency often associated with weaning onto thin cereal gruels. Cassava Plantains Bloating of the stomach due to edema Fluid leaking into body Wasted muscles Antibodies degraded to provide protein to body Infection Dysentery Death


Marasmus Calorie deficiency Lack of food Poorest populations Neglected Infants children Protein used for energy Results in wasting Deterioration of tissues Brain development impaired

Balanced Protein: 

Balanced Protein Protein are made of amino acids Essential amino acids Body cannot make Required in diet Animal proteins have perfect balance of amino acids Meat Milk Eggs

Complementing Proteins: 

Complementing Proteins Plant proteins are deficient in different essential amino acids Cereals Low in lysine Beans Low in methionine Must eat both cereal and beans together to get balanced amino acids Complementing proteins Rice and Beans

Calorie Deficiency: 

Calorie Deficiency Most widespread problem among poor Cannot get enough calories (energy) in diet Most get enough protein Calorie requirements vary Age Sex Pregnancy Lactation

Nutritional Needs: 

Nutritional Needs RDA Recommended Daily Allowance Level of nutrients adequate for 97-98% of the group Good target for individuals EAR Estimated Average Requirement Level of nutrients adequate for ½ individuals in group Always lower than RDA Good target for average intake of a group

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