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8 Reforming American Society QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION Religion Sparks Reform 1 SECTION Slavery and Abolition 2 SECTION Women and Reform 3 SECTION The Changing Workplace 4 MAP GRAPH

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8 Reforming American Society HOME To recognize the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening and to understand the various social and labor reform movements that swept the nation during the first half of the 19th century

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8 W I T H H I S T O R Y I N T E R A C T What would you do to improve working conditions? Examine the Issues The year is 1834. You work in the textile mills in Massachusetts and provide most of the income for your family. The mill owners have gradually increased your workload to 12 hours a day. Now they are going to cut your pay by 15 percent. Coworkers are angry and are discussing what they can do. • What actions pressure businesses to change? • What are some conditions you would not tolerate? HOME • What moral arguments would you present? Reforming American Society

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8 The United States The World 1820 Revolts break out in Spain and Portugal. 1822 Large textile mill opens in Lowell, Massachusetts. 1827 Sojourner Truth is freed from slavery. 1832 Britain passes its first Reform Bill. 1833 Britain abolishes slavery in its empire. HOME 1829 David Walker prints Appeal, a pamphlet urging slaves to revolt. 1831 Nat Turner leads slave rebellion. Reforming American Society continued . . . 1834 National Trades' Union is formed.

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8 The United States The World 1841 Utopian community is established at Brook Farm. 1839 French and British introduce first forms of photography. 1838 Frederick Douglass flees to New York City to escape slavery. 1840 World's Anti-Slavery Convention is held in London. HOME Reforming American Society

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A renewal of religious sentiment—known as the Second Great Awakening—inspired a host of reform movements. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME GRAPH

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OVERVIEW A renewal of religious sentiment—known as the Second Great Awakening—inspired a host of reform movements. Many modern social and political reform movements grew out of the reform movements of 19th-century America. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME ASSESSMENT GRAPH

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1. List four events and ideas that relate to the Second Great Awakening. continued . . . HOME revivals Unitarian movement Charles Finney transcendentalism GRAPH

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2. Consider the philosophical and religious ideas expressed during the Second Great Awakening and other religious reform movements. What were the key values and beliefs that guided 19th-century reformers’ actions? Think About: ANSWER The reformers shared a strong belief in the power of the individual to improve him/herself and in individual responsibility for improving society. • concepts of individualism and individual salvation • attitudes toward social responsibility HOME continued . . . • the viewpoints of Finney, Channing, and Emerson GRAPH

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3. How do you think the 19th-century reform movements in schools, prisons, and asylums might have influenced reform movements today? ANSWER Today’s reform movements are influenced by the ideals of equal rights, universal suffrage, an informed citizenry, and humane treatment of the incarcerated that grew out of 19th century reform movements. HOME continued . . . GRAPH

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4. Why might the idea of utopian communities appeal to the transcendentalists? ANSWER In utopian communities, transcendentalists would be able to practice their ideals of living a simple life and being close to nature. HOME End of Section 1 GRAPH

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Slavery became an explosive issue, as more Americans joined reformers working to put an end to it. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME MAP

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HOME OVERVIEW Slavery became an explosive issue, as more Americans joined reformers working to put an end to it. The people of the United States continue to be challenged by questions of economic and social inequality. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT MAP

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1. Look at the chart to help organize your thoughts. List the major antislavery and proslavery actions that occurred from 1820 to 1850. continued . . . HOME Publication of The Liberator and Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World; formation of antislavery societies; Nat Turner’s rebellion The defeat of the Virginia motion for abolition; tighter slave regulations; the growth of vigilance committees; and the 1836 gag rule MAP

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2. Which do you think was a more effective strategy for achieving the abolitionists’ goal of eliminating slavery—violence or nonviolence? Why? Think About: ANSWER Antislavery violence was more effective because it forced the nation to pay more attention to slavery, but it tended to elicit equally strong and violent reactions from slaveholders. • Garrison’s and Walker’s remarks • Frederick Douglass’s views HOME continued . . . • Southerners’ reactions to Nat Turner’s rebellion MAP

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3. What arguments did Southern proslavery whites employ to defend slavery? ANSWER They used the Bible to defend slavery, invented the myth of the happy slave as part of the plantation family, and argued that free blacks in the North were not as well-off as Southern slaves. HOME continued . . . MAP

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4. Compare the similarities and differences between the situations of free blacks in the North and slaves in the South. ANSWER North: forced into the lowest-paid, least desirable jobs South: might labor in cotton fields or work in owners’ homes; some had skilled jobs in factories, but wages went to owners. HOME End of Section 2 MAP

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Women reformers expanded their efforts from movements such as abolition and temperance to include women’s rights. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME

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HOME TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW Women reformers expanded their efforts from movements such as abolition and temperance to include women’s rights. The efforts of 19th-century women reformers inspired both woman suffragists in the early-1900s and present-day feminist movements. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW

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1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List historical events, ideas, or people that relate to the idea of women addressing inequality. HOME The cult of domesticity Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sojourner Truth The Grimké sisters continued . . .

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2. The Seneca Falls “Declaration of Sentiments” asserted that “Woman is man’s equal.” In what ways would that change the status women held at that time? Cite facts to support your answer. Think About: ANSWER Equal status with men would change women’s subservient role. It would give them rights to property, to vote, to act as legal guardians for their own children, and to earn equal wages for the same jobs. continued . . . • women’s social, economic, and legal status in the mid-1800s HOME • married women’s domestic roles • single women’s career opportunities and wages

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3. In what ways did the reform movements affect the lives of women—both white and African American? ANSWER Women were deeply involved in the issues of abolition and temperance and less heavily involved in issues of women’s rights. HOME continued . . .

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4. Why do you think that many of the people who fought for abolition also fought for women’s rights? ANSWER Opposition to abolition made many women abolitionists determined to join other reform movements, such as women’s rights and the temperance movement. HOME End of Section 3

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A growing industrial work force faced problems arising from manufacturing under the factory system. KEY IDEA OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT HOME

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HOME TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW A growing industrial work force faced problems arising from manufacturing under the factory system. The National Trades’ Union was the forerunner of America’s labor unions today. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW

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1. Name things that contributed to the changing workplace in the first half of the 19th century. continued . . . HOME power looms manufacturing techniques in textile industry mechanization use of unskilled workers multi-factory sites production lines

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2. Do you think the positive effects of mechanizing the manufacturing process outweighed the negative effects? Why or why not? Think About: ANSWER Positive effects include the reduced cost and wider availability of manufactured items, and expanding opportunities for women and unskilled male workers. Negatives include poor working conditions, loss of family businesses, pollution and the breaking up of families and communities as people left home to work in factories. • changes in job opportunities for artisans, women, and unskilled male laborers • changes in employer-employee relationships • working conditions in factories HOME • the cost of manufactured goods

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3. If you were working in a factory during the mid-1800s, would you be a striker or a strikebreaker? continued . . . ANSWER Native-born Americans working in skilled trades were most likely to support strikes. Strike-breakers might have been unskilled laborers desperate for any kind of work. HOME

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4. How did the influx of new immigrants from Germany and Ireland affect circumstances in the American workplace? ANSWER Immigrants had an impact in Northern cities. Irish immigrants, for example, were a threat to existing skilled labor and were seen as unfair competition. HOME End of Section 4