PowerPoint Presentation: Career Planning and Development The Concept of Career: The Concept of Career A career is the pattern of work-related experiences and activities over the span of the person’s work life, e.g., job positions job duties decisions subjective interpretations about work-related events Career Development System: Linking Organizational Needs with Individual Needs: Career Development System: Linking Organizational Needs with Individual Needs ISSUE: Are employees developing themselves in a way that links personal effectiveness and satisfaction with the achievement of the organization’s strategic objectives? INDIVIDUAL NEEDS How do I find career opportunities within the organization that will do the following? Use my strengths Address my developmental needs Provide challenges Match my interests Match my values Match my personal style ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS What are the organization’s major strategic issues over the next two or three years? Critical needs and challenges to be faced? Critical skills, knowledge, and experience needed to meet these challenges? Staffing levels required? Does the organization have the strength necessary to meet the critical challenges? Career Stages (1 of 2): Career Stages (1 of 2) Stage I: Apprenticeship Important needs – safety, security, physiological Expected to show competence in learning and following directions Must be able to accept the psychological state of dependence Stage II: Advancement Important needs – achievement, esteem, autonomy Demonstrate competence in a specific technical area Expected to be an independent contributor of ideas in the chosen area PowerPoint Presentation: Career Stages (2 of 2) Stage III: Maintenance Important needs – esteem, self-actualization Expected to become the mentors of those in Stage I Central activities are training and interaction with others Assume responsibility for the work of others Stage IV: Strategic Thinking Important needs – self-actualization Involves shaping the direction of the organization itself Expected to play the roles of manager, entrepreneur, and idea generator Attention directed to long-range strategic planning Career Choice and Personality: Career Choice and Personality Social Enterprising Conventional Investigative Artistic Realistic Career Choice: Examining Skills: Career Choice: Examining Skills Determining what skills one has is extremely important in making career choices Interest and Skill Survey (ISS) skill orientations: 1. influencing 5. analyzing 2. organizing 6. producing 3. helping 7. adventuring 4. creating PowerPoint Presentation: Career Development: A Commitment Career development programs are most valuable when they are: offered regularly open to all employees modified when evaluation indicates that change is necessary PowerPoint Presentation: Career Development Programs Career Counseling Career Pathing Training Career Information Systems Management or Supervisory Development Human Resources Special Groups PowerPoint Presentation: Causes of Early Career Difficulties Initial Job Challenge Initial Job Satisfaction Initial Job Performance Evaluation PowerPoint Presentation: Realistic job previews Challenging initial assignments Enriched initial assignments Demanding bosses How to Counteract Early Career Problems Causes of the Midcareer Plateau: Causes of the Midcareer Plateau Fewer jobs at the top of organizations Manager may have the ability However, no opening exists Openings may exist Manager may lack the ability or skills Manager may lack the desire to fill the opening How to Counteract Midcareer Problems: How to Counteract Midcareer Problems Midcareer counseling Midcareer alternatives Lateral transfers Downward transfers Failback positions How to Minimize Retirement Adjustment Problems: Questions to Consider: How to Minimize Retirement Adjustment Problems: Questions to Consider When do employees plan to retire? Who is attracted by early retirement? What do employees plan to do during retirement? Can the organization help them prepare for these activities? Do retirees plan a second career? Can the organization assist in this preparation? Which retirees can still be consulted by the organization to help new employees? Career Planning and Pathing: Career Planning and Pathing Career planning – involves matching an individual’s career aspirations with the opportunities available in an organization Career pathing – the sequencing of the specific jobs associated with the opportunities available in the organization A Career Planning and Pathing Process: A Career Planning and Pathing Process Individual needs and aspirations Personal counseling and assessment Individual development efforts Matching Matching Placement on career path Organizational needs and opportunities Personnel planning and career information Formal training and development programs Feedback Feedback Career Planning Approaches: Informal counseling Formal counseling Tuition aid programs Job posting Career Planning Approaches Job Posting: Minimum Conditions (1 of 2): Job Posting: Minimum Conditions (1 of 2) It should include promotions and transfers as well as permanent vacancies Available jobs should be posted at least three to six weeks prior to external recruiting Eligibility rules should be explicit and straightforward Standards for selection and bidding instructions should be stated clearly Job Posting: Minimum Conditions (2 of 2): Job Posting: Minimum Conditions (2 of 2) Vacationing employees should be given the opportunity to apply ahead of time Employees who apply but are rejected should be notified of the reason in writing A record of the reason should be placed in their personnel files Career Pathing: Career Pathing Important in workforce planning Has the potential for closing the gap between the needs of the individual and the needs of the organization Traditional career paths have emphasized upward mobility in a single occupation or functional area Realistic Career Paths: An Alternative to Traditional Career Pathing: Realistic Career Paths: An Alternative to Traditional Career Pathing Include lateral and downward possibilities, as well as upward possibilities Tentative and responsive to changes in organizational needs Flexible enough to take into account the qualities of individuals Jobs along the paths specified in terms of acquirable skills, knowledge, and other specific attributes Career Development Programs: Problems and Issues: Career Development Programs: Problems and Issues Integrating career development and workforce planning Managing dual careers Career planning and equal employment opportunity Downsizing and job loss Job Layoff and Job Loss: Job Layoff and Job Loss Job layoff exists when three conditions occur: There is no work available at the time and the employee is sent home Management expects the no-work situation to be temporary Management intends to recall the employee Job loss means that the employee has permanently lost his job Managerial Responses to Layoffs and Job Loss: Managerial Responses to Layoffs and Job Loss Layoff Criteria Outplacement Services Severance Pay Summary: Summary “Work, if the longing of the unemployed is any indication, remains a fundamental need – even in the crushing form it has increasingly assumed in the modern world. It provides not simply a livelihood, but an essential passage into the human community. It makes us less alone.