Appendicitis ppt


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ACUTE APPENDICITIS Roy Phitayakorn, M.D. Christopher Brandt, M.D. Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Ms. Z. Cope:

Ms. Z. Cope You are called to see a patient in the Emergency Department, who is a 25 year-old female with a 1 day history of right-lower quadrant abdominal pain.


History What other points of the history do you want to know?

PowerPoint Presentation:

History, Ms. Cope Characterization of symptoms Temporal sequence Alleviating / Exacerbating factors: Pertinent PMH, ROS, MEDS. Relevant family hx. Associated signs and symptoms Consider the Following

History, Patient ZC:

History, Patient ZC Pain started in the middle of the night and woke the patient from sleep. Felt nauseated and vomited after pain No significant MED.HX. or SURG HX. Negative Family HX Noted some indigestion yesterday Feels urge to have bowel movement, but has been constipated

What is your Differential Diagnosis?:

What is your Differential Diagnosis?

Differential Diagnosis Based on History and Presentation:

Differential Diagnosis Based on History and Presentation Systemic or infectious conditions Influenza Gastroenteritis Hepatitis Diaphragmatic pleurisy Spinal disease Typhoid Tuberculosis Acute porphyria Diabetic ketoacidosis

Differential Diagnosis (cont.):

Differential Diagnosis (cont.) Intra-abdominal conditions Acute Appendicitis Acute Cholecystitis Diverticulitis (Meckel’s) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s) Duodenal Ulcer Intestinal Obstruction Carcinoma of the Cecum Nonspecific adenitis – Possible Yersinia infection

Differential Diagnosis (cont.):

Differential Diagnosis (cont.) Intra-pelvic conditions Salpingitis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Ectopic Pregnancy Ruptured Corpus Luteum Cyst Ruptured Follicular Cyst (Mittelschmerz) Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Ovarian Torsion Pyelonephritis Ureteral/Renal stone

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination What would you look for?

Physical Examination, Patient ZC:

Physical Examination, Patient ZC Vital Signs: 39 o C, HR=75, RR=15, BP=125/75 Appearance: Patient is lying quietly on bed in fetal position HEENT : No icterus VAGINAL: nontender, no Discharge CV : nl S1S2, no murmurs RECTAL: Guaiac neg, uncomfortable during exam PULM : CTA Bilat. no pain with inspiration Neuromuscular: Minimal hyperesthesia above umbilicus ABD : Moderately tender in RLQ between pubic symphysis and ASIS, involuntary guarding, Neg bowel sounds

Would you like to revise your Differential Diagnosis?:

Would you like to revise your Differential Diagnosis?

Would you like to revise your Differential Diagnosis?:

Would you like to revise your Differential Diagnosis? Acute appendicits Diverticulitis (Meckel’s) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s) Ovarian pathology Acute cholecystitis Intestinal obstruction Nonspecific adenitis – Possible Yersinia infection


Laboratory What would you obtain?

Labs ordered:

Labs ordered CBC Electrolytes LFT’s Amylase /Lipase B-HCG Urinalysis

Lab Results, Ms. Cope:

Lab Results, Ms. Cope CBC: 14,500 LFTs : WNL HCG : WNL Electrolytes : WNL Amylase : WNL U/A: WNL

Interventions at this point?:

Interventions at this point?

Interventions at this point? Consider the following:

Interventions at this point? Consider the following Start IV with Ringers Lactate or similar isotonic crystalloid solution Administer antibiotics Admit to the hospital Go Directly to the OR? Other?


Studies What further studies would you want at this time?

Radiologic Studies to Consider:

Radiologic Studies to Consider Flat/Upright Abdomen CT Scan: Abd/Pelvis CT Scan: Other ? US Abdomen/Pelvis

Considering your Differential Diagnosis:

Considering your Differential Diagnosis What would you expect to see on a flat/upright abdominal series? What specific abnormalities do you look for on US? What population? Are there specific CT findings in any of your top 3 diagnoses?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Abdominal Film

Abdominal X-ray Findings:

Abdominal X-ray Findings Non-specific gas pattern No fecalith No free air

CT Scan Abdomen & Pelvis:

CT Scan Abdomen & Pelvis

CT Scan – Results:

CT Scan – Results Acute Appendicitis Thickened dilated appendix Peri-appendiceal fat stranding Scant free fluid Incidental small left ovarian cyst What is the differential diagnosis at this point?

Revised Differential Diagnosis:

Revised Differential Diagnosis

What next?:

What next? Additional Imaging? Observation? OR? Other?

What next?:

What next? Discussion of suggested interventions


Management Surgical Options Pre-operative preparation

Laparoscopic Acute Appendicitis:

Laparoscopic Acute Appendicitis


Discussion Pathophysiology of the disease process, visceral vs. parietal abdominal pain, laparoscopy vs. open, antibiotic management, appropriate utilization of resources, etc.


Discussion Additional teaching points





Alternative scenarios:

Alternative scenarios Acute Appendicitis with perforation/ Abscess or tumor IBD Acute Diverticulitis Ovarian Cyst / Torsion/ Perforated Right colon tumor

CT Cecal Tumor:

CT Cecal Tumor

CT Sigmoid Diverticulitis:

CT Sigmoid Diverticulitis

CT Ovarian Cystic Mass:

CT Ovarian Cystic Mass

CT Terminal Ileal Crohn’s:

CT Terminal Ileal Crohn’s

CT Acute Appendicitis:

CT Acute Appendicitis

PowerPoint Presentation:

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