Word Stress & Sentence Stress: Word Stress & Sentence Stress Huang Wanmei Review of Vowels: Review of Vowels Three factors for the description of English vowels I. The height of the body of the tongue – highest point of tongue (vertical axis); II. The front-back position of the tongue – highest point of tongue (horizontal axis); III. The degree of lip rounding - lip posture PowerPoint Presentation: The height of the body of the tongue The front-back position of the tongue: The front-back position of the tongue Description of the vowels: Description of the vowels Front & Central Vowels / : / high, front, unrounded vowel / / lower high, front, unrounded vowel /e/ mid, front, unrounded vowel /æ/ low, front, unrounded vowel / :/ mid, central, unrounded vowel /ə/ mid, central, unrounded vowel PowerPoint Presentation: Back Vowels / :/ low, back, unrounded vowel / / low, back, rounded vowel / :/ mid-low, back, rounded vowel /u/ lower high, back, rounded vowel /u:/ high, back, rounded vowel / / lower mid, back, unrounded vowel Unit 8: Word Stress: Unit 8: Word Stress English is a stress timed language The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. Stress in a spoken sentence occurs at regular intervals and the time to say something depends on the number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself. 1 2 3 4 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 1 and a 2 and a 3 and a 4 1 and then a 2 and then a 3 and then a 4 Word Stress: Word Stress A word stress means a prominent syllable word pattern tea .cher • . beau .ti.ful • . . un.der. stand . . • con. ti .nue . • . How to pronounce word stress?: How to pronounce word stress? When a syllable is stressed, it is pronounced longer in duration higher in pitch louder in volume How do you say teacher?: How do you say teacher ? Longer teeeeeeeeeeee cher Higher tea cher Louder TEA cher All three combined TEEEEEEEEEEE cher Word Stress Rule: Word Stress Rule Word type Where is the stress? Examples Two syllables Nouns on the first syllable cen ter ob ject flow er Verbs on the last syllable re lease ad mit ar range Compound Nouns (N + N) (Adj. + N) on the first part desk top pen cil case book shelf green house Adjectives (Adj. + P.P.) on the last part (the verb part) well -meant hard -headed old -fashioned Verbs (prep. + verb) under stand over look outper form PowerPoint Presentation: Word type Where is the stress? Examples Phrasal Verbs on the particle turn off buckle up hand out Word with added ending -ic the syllable before the ending eco no mic Geo me tric e lec trical -tion, -cian, -sion Tech ni cian gradu a tion co he sion -phy, -gy, -try, -cy, -fy, -al the third from the last syllable Pho to graphy bi o logy ge o metry -meter Pa ra meter Ther mo meter ba ro meter Sentence Stress in English:
Sentence Stress in
stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or "beat". You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word . Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence .
PowerPoint Presentation: Most sentences have two types of word: content words structure words Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense. Structure words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. If you remove the structure words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the sentence. PowerPoint Presentation: SELL CAR GONE FRANCE Imagine that you receive this telegram message: Will you SELL my CAR because I ’ ve GONE to FRANCE SELL my CAR I ’ ve GONE to FRANCE PowerPoint Presentation: 2 1 3 1 Will you SELL my CAR because I ’ ve GONE to FRANCE Rules for Sentence Stress in English: Rules for Sentence Stress in English The basic rules of sentence stress are: content words are stressed structure words are unstressed the time between stressed words is always the same PowerPoint Presentation: Content words - stressed Words carrying the meaning Example main verbs SELL, GIVE, EMPLOY nouns CAR, MUSIC, MARY adjectives RED, BIG, INTERESTING adverbs QUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER negative auxiliaries DON'T, AREN'T, CAN'T Structure words - unstressed Words for correct grammar Example pronouns he, we, they prepositions on, at, into articles a, an, the conjunctions and, but, because auxiliary verbs do, be, have, can, must