DEAD SPACE

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DEAD SPACE:

DEAD SPACE DR FARISA ASSOC PROFF

TYPES OF DEAD SPACE:

TYPES OF DEAD SPACE Anatomical ----150ml Alveolar Physiological or total dead space

DEAD SPACE:

DEAD SPACE

VARIATIONS OF DEAD SPACE:

VARIATIONS OF DEAD SPACE Physiological Sex Age Height Pathological Emphysema Embolism

Measurement of dead space:

Measurement of dead space Anatomical dead space direct method indirect method

Direct method:

Direct method Bohrs equation Expired air vol x (co2%in alveolar air-co2% exp )/co2%

SURFACTANT:

SURFACTANT SOURCE;; Type 2 pneumocytes COMPOSITION Phospho lipids Proteins Ions Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)

PNEUMOCYTES:

PNEUMOCYTES

STRUCTURE OF SURFACTANT MOLECULE:

STRUCTURE OF SURFACTANT MOLECULE

SURFACTANT MOLECULE:

SURFACTANT MOLECULE

FUNCTIONS:

FUNCTIONS REDUCES COLLAPSE OF ALVEOLI WORK OF BREATHING PREVENTS PULMONARY OEDEMA ALVEOLAR STABILIZATION

FACTORS AFFECTING SURFACTANT:

FACTORS AFFECTING SURFACTANT WHICH DECREASE SURFACTANT O2 inhalation Occlusion of bronchus, pulmonary artery Cigarette smoking Section of vagus

INCREASE SURFACTANT :

INCREASE SURFACTANT Thyroid hormones Glucocorticoids

SIGNIFICANCE OF SURFACTANT:

SIGNIFICANCE OF SURFACTANT RDS ARDS PATCHY ATELECTASIS

ALVEOLAR VENTILATION PERFUSION RATIO (VA/Q):

ALVEOLAR VENTILATION PERFUSION RATIO (VA/Q) VA/Q= 0.83---0.9 It is the ratio of alveolar ventilation/min to quantity of blood flow to alveoli/ min . Maximum oxygenation occurs

FACTORS AFFECTING VA/Q:

FACTORS AFFECTING VA/Q Physiological Effect of gravity Apex of lung -- high VA/Q Base of lung– below normal

Pathological factors :

Pathological factors Causes of uneven alveolar ventilation Asthma Emphysema Fibrosis Causes of non uniform blood flow Embolism Fallots tetrology

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