Environment impact assessment

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Presented by: 

Abdul Rehman CE09-10M04 Fahad Gulam Rasool CE09-10M09 Bilal Hassan CE09-10M17 Abid Mahmood CE09-10M44 Farhan Akhtar PG09-10M12 Gulam Murtaza PG09-10M13 Presented by

Table of contents: 

Introduction to environmental impact Assessment Purpose of environmental impact assessment Steps in environmental impact assessment Environmental Impact Statement Indicators to Assess Environmental Impacts Table of contents

Introduction to environmental impact Assessment : 

Introduction to environmental impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment: 

EIA is a systematic process to identify, predict and evaluate the environmental effects of proposed actions and projects. A broad definition of environment is adopted. Whenever appropriate social, cultural and health effects are also considered as an integral part of EIA. Finally, particular attention is given in EIA for preventing, mitigating and offsetting the significant adverse effects of proposed undertakings Environmental Impact Assessment


Definition It is a planning and management tool for sustainable development that seeks to identify the type, magnitude and probability of environmental and social changes likely to occur as direct or indirect result of a project or policy and to design the possible mitigation procedure.

EIA is a tool that is applied… : 

EIA is a tool that is applied… before major decisions are taken and when all alternatives are still open; to inform all stages of decision making, including final approval and the establishment of conditions for project implementation; with public participation and consultation; and to integrate environmental considerations and safeguards into all phases of project design, construction and operation


History The National Environmental Policy Act 1969 of USA is the legislative basis for EIA. The policy was the result of wide spread recognition in the 1960s that some major environmental problems were created by the government’s projects (power stations, dams and reservoirs, industrial complexes). The legislation made mandatory to assess the environmental consequences of all projects by federal agencies. In 1990s, many developed and some developing countries designed their EIA legislation. e.g. New Zealand (1991), Canada (1995), Australia (1999), Vietnam (1993), Uganda (1994), Ecuador (1997). Today, EIA is firmly established in planning process in many of these countries.

Purpose of environmental impact assessment : 

Purpose of environmental impact assessment

Purposes and Objectives: 

Purposes and Objectives The immediate purpose of EIA is to inform the process of decision-making by identifying the potentially significant environmental effects and risks of development proposals. Objectives related to this aim are to: improve the environmental design of the proposal; ensure that resources are used appropriately and efficiently; identify appropriate measures for mitigating the potential impacts of the proposal; and facilitate informed decision making, including setting the environmental terms and conditions for implementing the proposal.

Purposes and Objectives (cont.…): 

Purposes and Objectives (cont.…) The ultimate (long term) objective of EIA is to promote sustainable development by ensuring that development proposals do not undermine critical resource and ecological functions. Objectives related to this aim are to: protect human health and safety; avoid irreversible changes and serious damage to the environment; safeguard valued resources, natural areas and ecosystem components; and enhance the social aspects of the proposal.

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Steps in EIA

Step 1: Screening: 

This step determines: whether or not EIA is required for a particular project what level of EIA is required Screening Outcomes: Full or comprehensive EIA required Limited EIA required No EIA required Step 1: Screening

Tools for Screening: : 

Project lists: Inclusive — listed projects must undergo EIA Exclusive — listed projects exempted from EIA Case-by-case examinations: determine whether projects may have significant environmental effects if so, project should undergo EIA Tools for Screening:

Step 2: Scoping:: 

begins once screening is completed the most important step in EIA establishes the content and scope of an EIA report Outcome: identifies key issues and impacts to be considered lays the foundation of an effective process, saves time and money, and reduces conflict Step 2: Scoping:

Types of Scoping:: 

Closed scoping: wherein the content and scope of an EIA Report is pre-determined by law and modified through closed consultations between a developer and the competent authority Open or P ublic scoping: a transparent process based on public consultations Types of Scoping:

Step 3: Impact Analysis:: 

Step 3: Impact Analysis: → Type biophysical, social, health or economic → Nature direct or indirect, cumulative, etc. → Magnitude or severity high, moderate, low → Extent local, regional, trans-boundary or global → Timing immediate/long term → Duration temporary/permanent → Uncertainty low likelihood/high probability → Reversibility reversible/irreversible → Significance* unimportant/important

Tools for Impact Analysis:: 

checklists matrices networks overlays and geographical information systems (GIS) expert systems professional judgement Tools for Impact Analysis:

Step 4: Impact Mitigation:: 

t o avoid, minimise or remedy adverse impacts t o ensure that residual impacts are within acceptable levels t o enhance environmental and social benefits Step 4: Impact Mitigation:

Framework for Impact Mitigation:: 

Framework for Impact Mitigation:

Step 5: Reporting:: 

Different name of EIA reports Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIA Report) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Environmental Statement (ES) Environmental Assessment Report (EA Report) Environmental Effects Statement (EES) Step 5: Reporting :

Step 6: Review: : 

Review the quality of the EIA report. Take public comments into account. Determine if the information is sufficient. Identify any deficiencies to be corrected . Who Perform the review? environmental agency — Canada (comprehensive studies), standing commission — Netherlands, inter-agency committee — USA, planning authority — UK independent panel — Canada (public inquiries) Public comment and input Step 6: Review :

Step 7: Decision Making:: 

To provide key input to help determine if a proposal is acceptable To help establish environmental terms and conditions for project implementation Step 7: Decision Making:

Step 8: Monitoring: : 

E nsure the implementation of conditions attached to a decision. Verify that impacts are as predicted or permitted. Confirm that mitigation measures are working as expected. Take action to manage any unforeseen changes. Step 8: Monitoring:

Key components of Monitoring: 

Establish baseline conditions. Measure impacts of a project as constructed. Verify conformity with established with conditions and acceptable limits. Establish links to environmental management plans. Carry out periodic checks and third-party audits. Key components of Monitoring

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To ensure that significant issues are identified; project related information is gathered, alternatives are considered. To avoid biases/inaccuracies in analysis; identify local values/preferences; assist in consideration of mitigation measures; select best alternative. To consider and comment on EIA Report To monitor the implementation of EIA Report’s recommendations and decision’s conditions. To consult people likely to be affected by proposal. Public Involvement in the EIA Steps

Environmental Impact Statement: 

An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) concisely describes and analyzes a proposed action which may have a significant impact on the environment. The EIS is available to the public for information and comment. Environmental Impact Statement

An EIS must include:: 

description of the action, including its need and benefits; description of the environmental setting and areas to be affected; an analysis of all environmental impacts related to the action; an analysis of reasonable alternatives to the action; identification of ways to reduce or avoid adverse environmental impacts. An EIS must include:

Indicators to Environmental Impacts Assessments: 

Indicators to Environmental Impacts Assessments

Indicators to Assess Environmental Impacts: 

In practice, the use of any indicators will be influenced by the nature and scale of the environmental assessment and the resources available. Surveys of land use changes, populations of domestic livestock and wildlife, and the availability of crop residues are probably more relevant at country or regional level. For large-scale assessment of land use and animal populations, remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important technique. Indicators to Assess Environmental Impacts

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Vegetation: Botanical composition of lower layer i.e. a reduction in the percentage of better quality grasses or an increase in the proportion of poor quality grasses and weeds. Within a given plant community the desirable species will be known. Increase in the number of shrubs and trees. Increase in bare ground. A measure of the potential erosion hazard. Indicators to Assess Environmental Impacts

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Soils: Suggested indicators for soils: Bulk density Organic carbon Total nitrogen Available phosphorus Cation exchange capacity Electrical conductiv ity

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Water Suggested indicators for water quality: Nitrate content: The main sources of nitrate are the product of microbial breakdown of soil organic matter, manure and plant residues; nitrogen fertilizers; atmospheric nitrogen. Nitrate is found in many natural waters at concentrations between 1.0 and 10.0 ml/L. Bacterial numbers and the presence of coliform organisms . Electrical conductivity