prezentation on chillie breeding

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PRESENTATION ON CHILLIES BREEDING:

PRESENTATION ON CHILLIES BREEDING PRESENTED BY : F.Z ROLL NO: 08 PLANT BREEDING &GENETICS

CLASSIFICATION:

CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Solanales Family: Solanaceae (night shade family) Genus: Capsicum Specie: a nnum, frutescence, baccatum, pubescence, chinense

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Ccapsicum baccatum Capsicum chinense Capsicum frutescens Capsicum pubescens Capsicum annum

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Chillie is both a vegetable crop & a spice crop. It is rich source of Vitamin A & C. There are more than 400 varieties of chillies found all over the world. It is also called as hot pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper etc. Its fruit is called as peprika. Both Chillie & Capsicum belong to the same genus,i.e; Capsicum. Pungency in chillies is due to alkaloid capsaicin. Red color of chillies is due to the pigment capsanthin . Capsicum/ Shimla mirch /bell pepper, is less pungent.

DIFFERENCE b/w Chilli & Capsicum:

DIFFERENCE b/w Chilli & Capsicum chilli Capsicum C. frutescence known as hot pepper. Perennial in nature. White colored flower. Frits born in clusters and thin peel. Growth determinate. More pungent. Vit. - c content high. Self pollinated. Used as spices. C. annum known as sweet or bell pepper. Annual in nature. White, purple & radish colored flower. Fruits born singly and thick peel. Growth indeterminate. Less pungent. Vit.- c content low. Cross pollinated. Used as vegetable.

HISTORY:

HISTORY Its species are native to America ,where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. The three species C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense evolved from a common ancestor located in the North of the Amazon basin.

CLIMATE:

CLIMATE Growing chillies require warm growin environment. It is raised from sea level to 2000 meter above sea level. Optimum temperature for fruit set is 24°C. Night temperature below 10°C fruit set restricted. Fruit weight, length, girth and pericarp thickness were high at 25°C day and 18°C night temperature.

SOIL & FIELD PREPARATION:

SOIL & FIELD PREPARATION Chilli can be grown all types of soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Optimum soil pH for chilli is 5.8 to 6.5. Very sensitive to water logging. Thoroughly plough the land 3-4 times followed by planking to level the field

IRRIGATION:

IRRIGATION Chilli plant cannot withstand water stagnation & excess moisture. Hence light irrigation &proper drainage is recommended. Generally crop is irrigated at an interval of 5-6days in summer and 9-10 days in winter. Sandy soil require frequent irrigation than clay soil.

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INTRUSTING BHUT JOLOKIA IS THE WORLDS HOTTEST PEPPER.

BREEDING CHILLIES:

BREEDING CHILLIES

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Chilli is self-pollinating crop. In which pollen grains transfer to stigma of same flower or different flower in same plant. Such crops are highly homozygous.

Breeding methods for self pollinating crops;:

Breeding methods for self pollinating crops; COMMONLY USED METHODS/ GENERAL BREEDING METHODS RARELY USED METHODS Plant introduction Mutation breeding Selection( pureline , mass selection, ) polyploidy Hybridization(pedigree, bulk, single seed descent, backcross) Transgenic breeding

PLANT INTRODUCTION:-:

PLANT INTRODUCTION :- It is introducing a plant into new regions from its growing locality. Proper management is very important. Material which is to be introduced should not carry any pest and disease.

MASS SELECTION:-:

MASS SELECTION :- It is oldest method. M.S refers to the selection of superior plants on the basis of phenotype from a mixed population. Their seeds are bulked &used to raise the next generation. MERIT:- Good for improvement of old cultivars& landraces. For purification of improved cultivars. Mass selected varieties provide good protection against diseases.

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Mass selected varieties are more stable in performance than pure line varieties. DEMERITS:- Progeny test is not carried out. The product is less uniform than pure line.

PURE-LINE SELECTION: :

PURE-LINE SELECTION: Merits:- Isolate best genotypes. Demerits:- Do not develop new genotype. Have poor adaptability due to narrow genetic base .

HYBRIDIZATION:-:

HYBRIDIZATION:- Crossing of two dissimilar plants is known as Hybridization. A cross is made b/w male parent of one genotype & female parent of other genotype. We get F1 hybrid. BULK METHOD:- F2 &subsequent generations are harvested in bulk, &at the end individual plant selection &evaluation is made in F8. Superior progenies are released as new cultivar.

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SINGLE SEED DESCENT METHOD:- A breeding procedure used with segreggating populations of self pollinated species in which plants are advanced by single seed from one generation to the next is referred to as SSD method. In this method, a single seed from each of 1000-2000 plants are bulked to raise nnext generation. In F3 & subsequent generations one random seed is selected from every plant in population & harvested in bulk to raise the next generation

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VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM ANNUM

VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE:

VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE

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VARIETIES OF CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS

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THANKS FOR ATTENTION

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