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Internal: Technical Element The Environmental Forces The technical element of the internal environment relates closely to the physical element. It consists of the layout of the workplace; the process by which the work is performed; and the tools, equipment, and machinery used to perform the work. These factors in turn determine both the way work is processed and the requirements of the jobs performed. The way in which work is organized affects interpersonal relations and interaction among employees within a work area. It influences the formation of informal work groups and the degree of cooperation or conflict among employees.Slide7: 2. Middle: Socio-Technical System The Environmental Forces “It is an Environment in which the technical and social Systems are integrated so that job design is based on human as well as technological considerations.” The Socio-technical systems restructure the work, work groups, & the relationship between workers & technologies. More than just enriching a job, these approaches may result in radical changes in the work environment. Efforts to “humanize” the workplace is much advanced in Germany, where the government funds 50 % of selected restructuring & retraining efforts in private industry. Shell Canada ltd. and Procter & Gamble provide North American examples.Slide8: 3. External: Technological Element The Environmental Forces This refers to computer technology which enabled firms to take advantage of the information explosion. Unlimited amounts of data can be stored, retrieved & used in a wide variety of ways, from simple record keeping to controlling complex equipment. Companies like AT&T, United Airlines, Equitable Life Insurance, American Express use sophisticated devices to measure work output. While large businesses & computer firms tout computerized monitoring as an effective means of improving productivity, such systems have been linked to increased stress, loss of privacy rights, health risks & employee job dissatisfaction.Slide9: Office Automation Tele- Commuting Robotic Function Advanced Transportation Artificial Intelligence Current Techno-Challenges Slide10: 1. Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence will definitely give a number of workers access to expert systems - computerized programs that capture the knowledge & decision making approaches to experts. As the capabilities of artificial intelligence give people and machines greater problem-solving powers, jobs and skills they require with change dramatically, affecting the employment, training, development, compensation, and employee relations activities of the HR department. Current Techno-ChallengesSlide11: 2. Office Automation Automation is another way in which technology affects the field of HR management. The introduction of computers into banks changed employment needs. HR departments of banks had dramatically changed their recruiting & training programs. Before computers, HR specialists recruited large numbers of unskilled and semiskilled clerks. Computers, however, required highly skilled programmers & systems analysts. Current Techno-ChallengesSlide12: 3. Robotic Function As robots become more common & sophisticated, they will affect organizational productivity and quality of work life for employees. Their increased use seems a certainty since their costs relative to labor costs are declining. Dangerous jobs – Such as working with toxic chemicals and paints will be changed by substituting robots for people. Similarly, highly repetitive assembly tasks increasingly will be taken over by robots by the 2000s. Current Techno-ChallengesSlide13: 4. Advanced Transportation The technology of cars and airplanes modified the transportation industry. Automobile and aviation companies grew, creating a demand for more employees and training. For those already employed by these firms, growth provided promotional opportunities. Railroad companies were also affected, except that the HR management challenges differed. Revenue lost to cars, trucks, and airplanes limited growth. HR departments in these companies had to reduce the work force and create early retirement systems. Current Techno-ChallengesSlide14: 5. Tele-Commuting Tele-commuting is the use of micro - computers, networks & other communications technology such as facsimile ( fax ) machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace. What potential benefits do HR managers see in telecommuting? In a recent USA survey, the most common responses were decreased production costs, increased employee satisfaction, and increased productivity. Current Techno-ChallengesSlide15: The emerging trend of the virtual office, which has been facilitated by IT, is one of the most effective structures for dealing with change. But even with advancing IT capability, the real challenge lies in designing an HRM activity which can take advantage of it to ensure effective communication and hold together the organization culture. I.T & The Virtual WorkforceSlide16: Outsourcing HRM is a result of: the escalating costs of employee benefits, the increasing workforce diversity, the availability of HRM consulting expertise, amorphous organizational boundaries, creation of team environments, improvement in information & communications technology, and the growth of the "invisible" workforce... I.T & The Virtual WorkforceSlide17: Virtual HR provides several categories of HR processes: Recruiting, Compensation, Hiring, Benefits, Discipline, Training & Development, and Employee Relations. Each category contains multiple processes with step-by-step instructions and recommendations for the specific topic. Provided within each process are sample policies, forms, spreadsheets and documents to help execute the process. HR Softwares By Auxillium WestSlide18: HR Source uses "switchboards" to help in creating job requisitions, adding applicants, processing new hires, terminating employees and performing COBRA - required actions. Included are employee data elements such as contact information, benefit selections, periodic pay rate, job and position data, skills and training information, and support job requisitions and applicant processing. HR Softwares By Auxillium WestSlide19: Traditional Vs. ContemporarySlide20: Traditional Vs. Contemporary Technology requires a person to have fewer skills to operate than manual work. Skilled workers accept to work as less skilled worker or they leave. Or they are replaced by cheaper labor with fewer skills. This is called Deskilling – changing the work using technology that requires fewer skills. However, technology has helped remove some boring and dangerous jobs.Slide21: Traditional Vs. Contemporary Technology makes existing workers more efficient. Checkout operators operate faster, accurately and hence fewer workers are required. Increasingly efficient production – minimum wastage, damage & errors and improved & consistent quality. Selection test must be revised to match the requirements of the new job. Teamwork, communication and multi-skills are essential.Slide22: Traditional Vs. Contemporary Job description needs to be changed to describe the new jobs, tasks and responsibilities. Reduced employment in areas where technology has been introduced. Creation of new jobs where Technology has been introduced. Many workers have become deskilled. As a result: type of employees, skills, training and induction will need to be modified from the old system to fit the new.Slide23: Traditional Vs. Contemporary Today workers need multi-skills for different jobs and they are likely to change their jobs a few times. New technology requires new knowledge, skills, perception and behaviors. Formal training must be provided to existing employees. Effective and efficient training must be provided for the new technology. So T&D with performance appraisal and reward system that reinforce those behaviors are required.Slide24: Traditional Vs. Contemporary As previously mentioned, today workers need multi-skills for different jobs and they are likely to change their jobs a few times. Multi-skilling refers to expanding the skill level of an individual. As a result the individual can perform a wide range of tasks. It opens up wider career options. It prepares the organizations for future needs.Slide25: Traditional Vs. Contemporary Induction has become more important. It enables the worker to understand the job requirements and fit well into the technological culture. Redundancies are becoming common partly due to new technology. Retrenchment packages must be updated and other services made available – like counselling. Some jobs disappeared (we no longer need Typists) (watchmaker – not needed due to digital watches).Slide26: HRM Techno-Modules Payroll Module Benefits module Work-time Module HR Info. Module Appli-Track Module HRM Technological Modules E-Cruiting Module Slide27: Gathering data on employee time and attendance; Calculating various deductions and taxes; & Generating periodic pay cheque and employee tax reports. Also has the ability to create deductions, by employee, using mathematical formulas, creating work codes with the specific deductions and much more. The Payroll module automates the pay process by: HRM Technological ModulesSlide28: Broad flexibility in data collection methods; Labor distribution capabilities & data analysis features; The employee can register their worked hours in a timesheet--Five different areas: employee, activity, project, client and cost-location. Efficiency metric is a primary function. The Work Time Module gathers standardized time and work related efforts. It provides: HRM Technological ModulesSlide29: Encompass insurance, compensation, profit sharing & retirement; Blue Exchange Eligibility Inquiry; Coordination of Benefits; Prescription Benefits Inquiry; Detail Benefits Inquiry & Detail Eligibility Inquiry. It provides a system for organizations to administer & track employee participation in benefits programs: HRM Technological ModulesSlide30: Basic demographic and address data; Selection, training & development and capabilities; Skills management, compensation planning records and other related activities; Produce pay checks, payroll reports, personnel records & pursue talent management. This module covers many other HR aspects from application to retirement. The system records: HRM Technological Modules HRMS Slide31: Analyzing personnel usage within an organization; Identifying potential applicants; Recruiting through company-facing listings; Recruiting through online recruiting sites; Recruiting through publications that market both recruiters and applicants. Online recruiting helps in locating potential candidates for an organization. This module typically encompass: HRM Technological ModulesSlide32: Analyzing personnel usage within an organization; Candidate Management & Job Order / Position Tracking; Full-Text Resume Search; EEO / EOC Data Collection and Reporting; Job Application Workflow & Career Portal with Online Applications. It is used to streamline the daily workload for recruiters by combining all of these features in one package: HRM Technological ModulesSlide33: The Internet has completely revolutionized the role of the traditional recruiter. Gone are the days where cold calling and candidate networking were the only option available. Now it's about searching through hundreds of thousands of CV's placed on personal web pages and browsing online corporate staff directories. It makes the process of finding candidates and new business opportunities quicker, cheaper and more efficient. Evolution of E-CruitmentSlide34: X-Raying Technique Peeling-Back Technique Flipping Technique Evolution of E-Cruitment E-Recruitment TechniquesSlide35: 'X-raying' is a technique achieved with the use of some simple search commands in many of the major search engines. Much of the information on a large website reside on pages that are not linked to the main web pages or on other pages that are available to the casual visitor, therefore are effectively invisible when you visit the site. Search engines may find all pages on a website, regardless of where they are linked and therefore when you x-ray a website you may see web pages that would be otherwise unobtainable or invisible to you. E-Recruitment TechniquesSlide36: 'Peeling-Back' is not so much a technique but a process that is used when a web page is found containing info that is of interest to you. The first thing to understand when you 1st start searching the web is how a web site is structured. It is identical to the way you would save your documents on your computer; a collection of folders each containing related documents. If you 'peel back' a web address, which involves you deleting the last part of the web address up to the last forward slash ( / ), this will show you all of the information that is contained in that folder. E-Recruitment TechniquesSlide37: 'Flipping', is used to find the relationships between web pages based on how they are hyperlinked together. The theory is that many people create home pages, alumni pages or brief listings about themselves and link those to the sites that are significant to their experience, including companies that they have worked for and professional associations that they are members of. Companies may have page links to their customers or business partners. It can reduce the time & effort involved in identifying relevant info from the billions of accessible web pages. E-Recruitment TechniquesSlide38: The NAPA Model The Center For Human Resource Management “Linking HR Competencies With Technology”Slide39: 1. Introduction 3. Model Components 4. HRIT Competencies 5. OPM Competencies The NAPA Model 2. Use of ModelSlide40: 6. NAPA’S HR Competencies 8. HRIT Roles 9. Task Statements 10. Task Tables The NAPA Model 7. New HR CompetenciesSlide41: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_m3495/is_n3_v43/ai_20514404 http://www.indiana.edu/~bus x420/Book-Excerpts/Chap02.doc The Center For Human Resource ManagementSlide42: HR & Personnel Management By: William B. Werther & Keith Davis Page # 42-45,158-159,301 http://www.pamij.com/drnevich.htmlSlide43: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_m3495/is_n3_v43/ai_20853283 “HR Changes due to Techno-Changes” Article Written By: Susheel Chand Company: Empower SystemsSlide44: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human resource management systems http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/recruit ment/e-cruitment.htmSlide45: www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/FE91AB7A-BF7B-44A7-AD78-40EF498D3FC3/ 12381/NAPA_Summary 1.pdf http://www.workinfo.com/Human Resource Management Links.htmSlide46: Any Questions? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.