magic of chemical reactions std 10

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Simple chemical reactions Chemical change Reactions with acid Reactions with oxygen 7F 7F Simple chemical reactions

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Chemical change 7F Simple chemical reactions

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7F Chemical change – Changing materials How many different materials can you see in this bedroom? The world around us contains many different materials .

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Materials can be changed in different ways. What is the reverse of ice melting? A physical change can be easy to reverse. 7F Chemical change – Changing materials A physical change means a material changes size, shape or state of matter.   e.g. Ice melts at room temperature.    

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A chemical change to a material results in a completely new material being made.   e.g. A bicycle left outside has become rusty.   A chemical change is very difficult to reverse. Could you change the rusty bicycle back into a non-rusty one? 7F Chemical change – Changing materials

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7F Chemical change – Physical or chemical?

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What does the arrow in the word equation mean? The new materials produced by the reaction are called the products . The starting materials that react with each other are called the reactants . A chemical reaction can be shown by a word equation: A chemical change is also called a chemical reaction . 7F Chemical change – What is a chemical reaction?  reactants products   

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7F Chemical change – Formation of water Name the reactants and the product of this reaction. The word equation for the formation of water is:   hydrogen + oxygen water

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7F Chemical change – Test your reactions! 1. In a chemical reaction, the properties of the reactants and products are… a) exactly the same. b) very different. c) very colourful. 2. When a chemical reaction takes place, the products can be turned back into the reactants… a) very easily. b) with difficulty. c) with a magic wand.

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3. The speed of a chemical reaction… a) is always very slow. b) is always very fast. c) can range from very slow to very fast. 4. The products of a chemical reaction are shown on the left-hand side of a word equation. a) Always. b) Sometimes. c) On Thursdays. 7F Chemical change – Test your reactions!

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5. The arrow in the middle of a word equation means… a) “turn right”. b) “react to make”. c) “equals”. 6. The starting materials involved in a chemical reaction are said to… a) act like each other. b) react with each other. c) read to each other. 7F Chemical change – Test your reactions!

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8. Which of these is not a sign that a chemical reaction has taken place? a) Boiling. b) Bubbling. c) Blowing. 7. Which of these processes is an example of an everyday chemical reaction? a) Freezing water. b) Melting butter. c) Baking bread. 7F Chemical change – Test your reactions!

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10. Rust forms when iron reacts with oxygen in the air. The word equation for this chemical reaction is: a) iron + rust  oxygen b) iron + oxygen  rust c) iron  rust + oxygen 7F Chemical change – Test your reactions! 9. When sodium metal is heated it can react with chlorine gas. The word equation for the reaction is: sodium + chlorine sodium chloride What is the product of this reaction? a) sodium. b) chlorine. c) sodium chloride.

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Reactions with acid 7F Simple chemical reactions

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 What do you know about acids? You need to know about the chemical reactions of acids with metals and carbonates . Weak acids, like lemon juice and vinegar, are harmless. Strong acids must be handled with care. They are dangerous because they can react easily with materials such as skin, wood and cloth. 7F Reactions with acid - Acids in chemical reactions

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What do you know about metals? Some metals can react with acids. This type of chemical reaction is called corrosion . Metals can be changed into new substances when they are involved in a chemical reaction. Metals are usually solid, shiny and strong. They are also good conductors of heat and electricity. 7F Reactions with acid - Metals in chemical reactions

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7F Reactions with acid - Reaction of metals with acid Do all metals react with acids in the same way? sodium magnesium lead copper iron sodium - the metal bursts into flames, a very strong reaction magnesium - the metal reacts quickly with the acid, producing lots of bubbles copper - no bubbles, no reaction with acid iron - the metal reacts slowly, producing a few bubbles lead - the metal reacts very slowly, producing very few bubbles

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The products of this chemical reaction are a salt and the gas hydrogen . When a metal does react with acid, the metal gets smaller and seems to disappear. But has the metal really disappeared? The metal has reacted with some of the acid. 7F Reactions with acid - Reaction of metals with acid Complete the word equation for the reaction of a metal with an acid: metal acid + + ? ?

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Carbonates can react with acids. Carbonates are chemicals that contain carbon and oxygen. 7F Reactions with acid - Reaction of carbonates with acid

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Complete the word equation for the reaction of a carbonate with acid: 7F Reactions with acid - Reaction of carbonates with acid carbonate acid + + + ? ? ? Calcium carbonate reacts with acid to produce a gas which turns the limewater cloudy. The other products of this reaction are a salt and water. What is the name of this gas?

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Reactions with oxygen 7F Simple chemical reactions

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Can you name the three things needed for combustion? When things burn they react with oxygen in the air and energy is released as heat and light. Burning is a chemical reaction.   7F Reactions with oxygen – What is burning? This chemical reaction is also called combustion .

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How can firefighters use the fire triangle to control fires? A fire only burns with all three parts of the fire triangle. 7F Reactions with oxygen – Fire triangle oxygen This colourless gas is needed for all substances to burn. heat Some energy is needed to start the burning reaction – this is usually heat energy from a spark or a flame. fuel Any substance that can burn (or combust) is called a fuel. oxygen heat fuel

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7F Reactions with oxygen – Products of burning Complete the word equation for this reaction: carbon oxygen + ?

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7F Reactions with oxygen – Candle in bell jar Oxygen is a gas found in the air around us. Is oxygen the only gas found in the air?

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