Drug and drug target

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Drug and Drug target

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DRUG AND DRUG

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DRUG AND DRUG

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Drug and drug targets :

Drug and drug targets Fairooz jahin 2009-1-70-023

Content of my presentation:

Content of my presentation

Drug:

Drug The word “ drug ” derived from the French word “ drouge ” means “ a dry herb ”. Drugs are compounds that interact with a biological system to produce a biological response. Figure: Drugs

Drug:

Drug According to WHO : A drug is any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system and pathological state for the benefit of the recipient. The benefit of the recipient (man or animal) is the diagnosis , prevention , control or cure of the disease. So the safe use of drugs needs sound knowledge of their various aspects such as mechanism of action, doses, routes of administration, adverse affects, toxicity, drug interaction etc.

Good drugs:

Good drugs Good drugs: Good drugs must posses some criteria: It would have to do what it is meant to do. It would have no toxic or unwanted side effects. It would be easy to take. Now the important question is how many drugs fit these criteria??? The short answer is none. There is no pharmaceutical compound that can completely satisfy all these conditions .

Good drugs:

Good drugs Examples: Penicillin: One of the safest drug. Yet it too has drawbacks. Never been able to kill all known bacteria. Many patients show an allergic reaction to it. Morphine: Excellent analgesic. Patient suffer serious side effects such tolerance, respiratory depression and addiction. To conclude, the good drugs are not as perfect as one might think.

Bad drugs:

Bad drugs Is there anything good, that can be said about the bad drugs??? Heroine: One of the best pain killing agent. Was named heroin at the end of the 19 th century because it was thought to be the “heroic” drug that would banish the pain. Went to the market in 1985 and 5 years later the true nature of its addictive properties became evident and drug was speedily withdrawn from the general distribution. However, it is called “diamorphine” and under strict control it is used for treating patients dying of cancer.

Bad drugs:

Bad drugs Not only diamorphine reduce pain to acceptable levels, it also produce a euphoric effect that helps to counter the depression faced by the patient close to death. So, it can be said all drugs some good points and some bad points. Some have more good points than bad and vice versa.

Phamacokinetics:

Phamacokinetics The intensity of the drug’s effect and the duration of the drug action are controlled by four fundamental pathways of drug movement and modification in the body. These are absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion.

Drug target:

Drug target Since life is made up of cells, then quite clearly drugs must act on cell. Cell structure :

Drug target:

Drug target Cell membrane: All cell contain a boundary called cell membrane, which encloses the cytoplasm. Figure: Cell membrane

Drug target at the molecular level:

Drug target at the molecular level Receptors: Receptors are macromolecular lipoprotein, present in the cell membrane or within the cell, with which drugs bind reversibly or irreversibly in order to produce an pharmacological effect. Figure: Receptor

Drug target at the molecular level:

Drug target at the molecular level Drugs bind to the receptors by inter molecular bonds . Every drug contain some specific functional group or binding group and receptors have binding site. Interaction is caused by binding site and binding group by following bonds: Electrostatic or ionic bond Hydrogen bond Van der walls interactions Dipole – dipole and ion- dipole interaction Repulsive interaction

Intermolecular bonds :

Intermolecular bonds Electrostatic or ionic bonds: It is the strongest of the all intermolecular bonds (20-40 kj per mol) It takes place between groups having opposite charges The strength of the interaction is inversly proportional to the distance between two charged atom. Na+ + Cl- = NaCl

Intermolecular bonds :

Intermolecular bonds 2. Hydrogen bond : Hydrogen bond takes place between an electronic rich hetero atom and electron defficient hydrogen. electronic rich hetero atoms has to haven a lone pair of electron. Usually nitrogen or oxygen atom. Figure: Hydrogen bond

Intermolecular bonds :

Intermolecular bonds 2. Hydrogen bond : Figure: Hydrogen bond

Intermolecular bonds :

Intermolecular bonds 3. Van der waals interactions: Very weak interaction (2-4 kj per mol) Occurs between non polar covalent compound. Figure: van der waals interaction

Intermolecular bonds :

Intermolecular bonds 3. Van der waals interactions: Figure: van der waals interaction

Intermolecular bonds :

Intermolecular bonds 4. Dipole dipole interaction: Figure: dipole dipole interaction

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