entomology

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entomology-coleoptera-Polyphaga

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CLASSIFICATION:

CLASSIFICATION KINGDOM   Animalia PHYLUM   Arthropoda SUBPHYLUM   Hexapoda CLASS   Insecta ORDER   Coleoptera SUBORDER   Polyphaga No Taxon  (Series Cucujiformia )

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Superfamily   Tenebrionoidea Family   Meloidae (Blister Beetles) EXPLANATION OF NAME   Gyllenhaal - 1810 Ability of causing skin blisters if handled NUMBERS 410 spp. in 22 genera of 3 subfamilies in India 3000 spp. in 120 genera of 4 subfamilies worldwide

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SUBFAMILIES Meloinae Tetraonycinae Nemognathinae SIZE 3-70 mm RANGE Worldwide, greatest diversity in arid/semiarid areas

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IDENTIFICATION Elongated/cylindrical beetles Head broad, generally rectangular Pronotum cylindrical and narrower Elytra not flat, rolled over abdomen Body soft, somewhat leathery Antennae filiform / moniliform Claw either toothed/lobed

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FOOD Larval food- provisions and larvae of ground nesting bees; several genera utilize grasshopper eggs Adults feed on leaves and flowers – Asteraceae , Fabaceae , Solanaceae Food and forage crops attacked by meloids LIFE CYCLE 30 days- 3 years Larvae- parasitoids; eggslaid in batches in soil near nests of hosts/on stems, foliage, flowers Larvae undergo hypermetamorphosis - first instar larvae- triungulins - active , well-developed legs, antennae- search for hosts Later instars- reduced legs, less active- coarctate stage Triungulins of   Meloe aggregate and attract male bees with chemical signals

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REMARKS Exude hemolymph which contains the blistering compound  cantharidin - Spanish Fly Males of some other beetles ( Pedilus &   Anthicidae ) seek out blister beetles, climb onto them and lick off the exuded cantharidin Resistant to the toxic effects- use the agent to impress their females- cantharidin is transferred to the female with the sperm packet Eggs the female lays- coated with cantharidin to protect them from predators Some plant bugs (e.g.  Aoplonema )- attracted to meloid

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Superfamily   Chrysomeloidea Family   Cerambycidae (Long-horned Beetles) COMMON NAMES Longhorns, Longicorns , Capricorns, Round-headed Borers, Timber Beetles, Sawyer Beetles EXPLANATION OF NAME Latreille -  1802 Greek  kerambex - type of horned beetle NUMBERS 1000 spp. in 300 genera in India 30,000 spp. in 5000 genera worldwide

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SUBFAMILIES Disteniinae Parandrinae Prioninae Lepturinae Spondylidinae Necydalinae Cerambycinae Lamiinae SIZE 3-150 mm RANGE Worldwide from sea level up to 4200 m elevations

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FOOD Larva- m ost species feed within dead, dying, decaying wood, some use living plant tissue like roots Girdlers sever living branches, with the larvae developing within the nutrient-rich distal portion Many adults feed on flowers, some taking nourishment from sap, leaves, blossoms, fruit, bark, and fungi; others take water LIFE CYCLE 2 months to decades Most of the lifetime is spent in the larval stage A dults usually emerge, disperse, reproduce& die within a few days Cellulose digestion primarily by enzymes P rimary borers- vital "first step" in the biorecycling of wood

BRUCHIDAE:

BRUCHIDAE

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Superfamily   Chrysomeloidea Family   Chrysomelidae (Leaf Beetles) EXPLANATION OF NAME Latreille - 1802 NUMBERS 35,000 described spp. in 2100 genera worldwide 1900 valid species and subspecies in ~220 genera in Indian Largest beetle family 2 nd largest among phytophagous beetle families

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SUBFAMILIES Bruchinae Donaciinae Criocerinae Cassidinae Chrysomelinae Galerucinae Lamprosomatinae Cryptocephalinae Eumolpinae Synetinae

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RANGE T hroughout the world except the antarctic & most of the high arctic HABITAT Chrysomelids are phytophagous Diverse and conspicuous insect families on plants The adults feed on living plant material Many chrysomelid larvae feed on leaves; great number are subterranean, attacking roots and underground stems FOOD Monophagous / commonly oligophagous REMARKS Used to control invasive weeds

APIONIDAE:

APIONIDAE

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Superfamily   Curculionoidea Family  Curculionidae (Snout and Bark Beetles) COMMON NAMES Weevils EXPLANATION OF NAME Latreille 1802 NUMBERS The largest animal family 50,000 species in 4600 genera worldwide 2,500 spp. in 480 genera of 19 subfamilies in India

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SIZE 1-35 mm IDENTIFICATION W ell-developed downward-curved snout A ntennae elbowed, clubbed, and the first segment often fits into a groove in the side of the snout RANGE T hroughout the world FOOD M ost larvae and adults feed on all parts of plants I mportant pests because they chew holes in fruits, nuts REMARKS Adults often play dead when disturbed

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