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BIO BATTERY-THE ANSWER TO OUR FUTURE ENERGY CRISIS:

BIO BATTERY-THE ANSWER TO OUR FUTURE ENERGY CRISIS PRESENTED BY SMRUTI SNIGDHA MISHRA ROLL NO- 409cy2015 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY NIT ROURKELA

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS WHATS BIO BATTERY? INSPIRATION OF BIO BATTERY FROM ELECTRIC EELS & PHOTOSYNTHESIS SONY BIO BATTERY FROM SUGAR ADVANTAGES OF BIO BATTERY RECENT RESEARCH OF BIO BATTERY USING BLOOD & SWEAT, URINE , VIRUS. APPLICATIONS DRAWBACKS USE OF BIO BATTERY AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN FUTURE

BIO BATTERY:

BIO BATTERY DEFINITION: Bio battery (bio fuel cells) use biocatalysts , either bio-molecules such as enzymes or even whole living organisms (microbes) to catalyze oxidation of biomass-based materials for generating electrical energy.

TYPES OF BIO BATTERY :

TYPES OF BIO BATTERY PASSIVE TYPE SYSTEM : A system in which reactive substances such as glucose & oxygen are absorbed into the electrodes through a process of natural diffusion . PTS have more simple structure suitable for miniature. ACTIVE TYPE SYSTEM : With “active type” bio batteries reactive substances are introduced by force by technique as stirring , convection. ATS have a more complicated structures.

ELECTRIC EELS INSPIRE BIO BATTERY:

ELECTRIC EELS INSPIRE BIO BATTERY HOW DO NATURAL ELECTRIC EEL CELLS WORK ? _ generate & release electric pulses of more than 500 v with 8 different channels & pumps. - K+ & Na+ ions are pump out of cell resulting in increase of no. Of negatively charged ions. -to maintain balance electrons flood out on opening certain channels producing enough electricity to stun its victim.

INSPIRATION ON APPLCATION:

INSPIRATION ON APPLCATION Use of computer models 4 pumps & channels - 4% efficient converting sugar to electricity. elimination one pump & adjustment –efficiency increased to 19% compared to 14% The energy currency of cells - ATP Stripping of one phosphate group drives cellular activities & in the process turns ATP to ADP . Sugar helps to recycle this ADP back to ATP.

Energy currency of cell:

Energy currency of cell

SONY BIO BATTERY:

SONY BIO BATTERY TOKYO, August 23, 2007- Sony today announced the development of a bio battery that generates electricity from carbohydrates (sugar) utilizing enzymes as its catalyst, through the application of power generation principles found in living organisms. The research results have been accepted as an academic paper at the 234th American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition in Boston, MA USA.

THE BIO BATTERY MECHANISM:

THE BIO BATTERY MECHANISM The newly developed bio battery incorporates an anode consisting of sugar-digesting enzymes and mediator , and a cathode comprising oxygen-reducing enzymes and mediator, either side of a cellophane separator . The anode extracts electrons and hydrogen ions from the sugar( glucose) through enzymatic oxidation as follows: Glucose Gluconolactone GD & DP

Cont..:

Cont.. The hydrogen ion migrates to the cathode through the separator. Once at the cathode, the hydrogen ions and electrons absorb oxygen from the air to produce water : Through this process of electrochemical reaction , the electrons pass through the outer circuit to generate electricity . BO

"Sony Develops 'Bio Battery' Generating Electricity from Sugar." PHYSorg.com. 23 Aug 2007. www.physorg.com/news107101014.html:

" Sony Develops 'Bio Battery' Generating Electricity from Sugar." PHYSorg.com. 23 Aug 2007. www.physorg.com/news107101014.html

KEY ACHIVEMENTS OF BIO BATTERY:

KEY ACHIVEMENTS OF BIO BATTERY 1) Technology to enhance immobilization of enzymes and mediator on the electrode 2) Cathode structure for efficient oxygen absorption 3) Optimization of electrolytes to meet the bio battery cell structure 4) Test cell combining high-power output and compact size

BIO BATTERY TECHINICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

BIO BATTERY TECHINICAL SPECIFICATIONS ENZYMES: ANODE: Glucose dehydrogenase & diaphorase CATHODE: Bilirubin oxidase MEDIATORS: ANODE: Vitamin K3 & Cofactor NADH CATHODE: Potassium ferricyanide ELECTRODE : Porous carbon CURRENT COLLECTOR : Titanium mesh. SEPARATOR: Cellophane. GLUCOSE SOLUTION : 0.4M glucose in 1.0 M sodium phosphate buffer, ph 7. MAXIUM OUTPUT : 1.5mw/cm3 at 1 min after connection. OCV: 0.8V

ADVANTAGES OF BIO BATTERY:

ADVANTAGES OF BIO BATTERY Eco friendly. Raw materials available easily & plentitly Portable & light weight compared to fuel cell. Provide a better employment scope for rural areas.

RECENT BIO BATTERY USING BLOOD & SWEAT:

RECENT BIO BATTERY USING BLOOD & SWEAT “ Its flexible , it can be shaped or folded , & can poke a hole in it & it still works ” says chemist ROBERT LINHARDT , a member of research team that developed the new bio battery made from paper & carbon nanotubes working at RENSSELAR POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE IN NEWYORK. easily implanted directly under the skin unlike metal batteries. It will take years to perfect the paper battery

BIO BATTERY USING URINE:

BIO BATTERY USING URINE Dr KI BANG LEE Singapore’s Institute of Bioengineering & Nanotechnology paper battery which uses the bio fluid (urine ) as the power source. The research is on to develop cheap disposable bio chip with urine activated battery integration for health care diagnostic applications.

THE LATEST BIO BATTERY USING VIRUS:

THE LATEST BIO BATTERY USING VIRUS SCIENTISTS engineered a virus at the “ MIT” that could form a battery 3 times more powerful than those found in gadgets today. PROBLEM: virus can mutate & can spread by air. SO WHEN THESE BATTERIES RUN OUR LAPTOP WE REALLY HAVE TO WATCH WHICH VIRUS TO REMOVE.

APPLICATIONS:

APPLICATIONS Paper bio battery could be used to power medical devices like hearing aid & pacemakers Sony used its sugar bio battery to power music play back on a memory type walkman. Using a miniature bio battery enabled to test the blood insulin level of diabetic patient.

DRAWBACKS:

DRAWBACKS Enzymes get denatured with temperature ,ph etc changes thus power production is lost. The power production per cell is relatively low compared to the available batteries.

USE OF BIO BATTERY IN FUTURE AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY:

USE OF BIO BATTERY IN FUTURE AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY .UNITED STATES PATENT 20040038128 7410709 6994934

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION WE CAN imagine using a bottle of Coke to recharge batteries in the future although we would still prefer solar Powered chargers as you can't really find a bottle of Coke everywhere, but the sun is there always

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PROF. R K PATEL ,HOD ,DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY. ALL THE FACULTY MEMBERS OF DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY. MY BROTHER & FAMILY. FRIENDS.

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES www.wikipedia.com " Sony Develops 'Bio Battery' Generating Electricity from Sugar." PHYSorg.com. 23 Aug 2007 www.howsstuffworks.com www.freepatentonline.com

TH ANK YOU:

TH ANK YOU THANK YOU