student version-Healthy eating for healthy babies (chapt11) [1]

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Healthy Eating for Healthy Babies Applied Nutrition for Health Spring 2011 Tracey Gardner

Nutrition and pregnancy:

Nutrition and pregnancy Although proper nutrition before and during pregnancy cannot guarantee a successful pregnancy outcome, it does profoundly affect fetal development and birth.

Pregnancy and Weight:

Pregnancy and Weight A woman ’ s prepregnancy weight status and weight gain during pregnancy are correlated to infant birth weight. Underweight women should gain weight before conception or gain more weight during pregnancy to reduce their risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Nutrient requirements and pregnancy:

Nutrient requirements and pregnancy Most nutrient requirements increase during pregnancy but can be met with an adequate and varied diet.

Calorie requirements and pregnancy:

Calorie requirements and pregnancy Calorie requirements do not increase until the second trimester of pregnancy. During the last two trimesters, normal-weight women need approximately 300 extra cal/day.

Folic acid:

Folic acid Women who are capable of becoming pregnant should take a multivitamin containing folic acid or eat folic acid-fortified cereals to ensure an adequate intake.

Nutrition counseling:

Nutrition counseling Should be initiated early in prenatal care. Should continue throughout the pregnancy. Should stress the importance of: weight gain. ways to improve overall intake. adverse effects of smoking. benefits of breast-feeding.

Nutrition counseling during pregnancy :

Nutrition counseling during pregnancy Know importance of adequate nutrition and weight gain for maternal and infant health. Achieve nutritional adequacy by using the Food Guide Pyramid. Take supplements only as prescribed by the physician. Avoid alcohol, tobacco, and drugs during pregnancy. Use coffee, caffeine, and artificial sweeteners in moderation, if so desired.

Nutrition counseling during pregnancy (cont’d):

Nutrition counseling during pregnancy (cont’d) Know that cravings during pregnancy do not appear to have a physiologic basis. Modify diet to alleviate or avoid nutrition-related problems and complications of pregnancy as appropriate. Avoid all medications unless approved by physician. Do not consume food or liquid once labor begins.

Proper nutrition:

Proper nutrition Proper nutrition may help to reduce the three problems common to adolescent pregnancies: preterm births. pregnancy-induced hypertension. anemia


Breast-feeding Recommended for the first 12 months of life. Uniquely suited to infant growth and development. Imparts other significant benefits to both infant and mother. Almost all women are capable of breast-feeding.

Breast milk:

Breast milk When maternal intake of nutrients is inadequate, the quantity, not the quality , of breast milk is diminished. Carbohydrate, protein, fat, and mineral contents of milk are relatively stable. Vitamin concentrations fluctuate in response to maternal intake.

Nutritional needs for lactation:

Nutritional needs for lactation For many nutrients, nutritional needs are higher during lactation than during pregnancy

Food guidance during lactation :

Food guidance during lactation Avoid freshwater fish from water contaminated with dioxin, or other chemicals. Consume little or no alcohol. Limit caffeine intake. Restrict other foods only on an as-needed basis.

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy:

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy You can eat anything you want because you ’ re eating for two. You can eat double portions because you ’ re eating for two. You should eat whatever you ’ re craving; your body must need it. If you take prenatal vitamins, you don ’ t have to worry about what you eat.

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont’d):

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont ’ d) You must take vitamins to have a healthy baby. The baby gets what he or she needs first, and the rest goes to the mother. If you breast-feed, you can lose all the weight you gain in pregnancy. Obese women don ’ t need to gain weight during pregnancy.

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont’d):

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont ’ d) It doesn ’ t matter what you eat, because the baby will take what it needs from your body. As long as you take vitamins, it ’ s all right to skip meals. When you are pregnant, you will crave pickles and ice cream. Gaining lots of weight makes a healthy baby.

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont’d):

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont ’ d) You lose a tooth with every baby if you don ’ t drink milk. Beets build red blood. Food cravings during pregnancy determine your child ’ s likes and dislikes later in life. Give in to your cravings, or you will mark the baby.

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont’d):

Common Myths About Nutrition During Pregnancy (cont ’ d) Do not eat fish and milk at the same meal. Do not eat egg yolks, because they will rot the uterus. If you crave sweets, the baby will be a girl. If you crave pickles, the baby will be a boy.

Supplement Alert::

Supplement Alert: The following herbal supplements should be avoided because they stimulate uterine contractions and may increase the risk of miscarriage or premature labor: Blue cohosh Juniper Pennyroyal or rosemary Sage Thuja Raspberry tea

The End:

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