6.5 Molecular Geometry Notes

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6.5 Molecular Geometry

What is molecular geometry?:

What is molecular geometry? Molecular geometry is the three dimensional arrangement of a molecule’s atoms in space. Where would you find electrons in a molecule? Bonds Lone pairs of electrons

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Linear Angular or Bent Trigonal planar Trigonal pyramidal Tetrahedral See-saw T-shaped Trigonal bi-pyramidal Octahedral Square Pyramidal Square planar

Orbital Hybridization:

Orbital Hybridization Hybridization is the mixture of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies. Orbital hybridization helps explain the shapes that molecules will take.

VSEPR Theory:

VSEPR Theory To predict the shape of molecules, we must consider that electrons are negatively charged and will repel each other. This is what gives molecules their shape. VSEPR theory states that repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible.

Predicting a VSEPR Structure- Method #1:

Draw Lewis structure. Put pairs as far apart as possible. Determine positions of atoms from the way electron pairs are shared. Determine the name of molecular structure from positions of the atoms Predicting a VSEPR Structure- Method #1

Or………….you can do it the easy way. Counting Domains- Method #2:

Or………….you can do it the easy way. Counting Domains- Method #2 You will still have to first draw the Lewis structure Each of the following count as one domain: Each lone pair of electrons Single bonds Double bonds Triple bonds The total number of domains surrounding the CENTRAL ATOM represents the electron domain geometry.

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2 domains: Linear 3 domains: Trigonal planar or angular (bent) 4 domains: tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal, or angular Bond angle: 180 o Bond angle: 120 o Bond angle: 109.5 o 3 Bonds 2 bonds and 1 lone pair 4 bonds 3 bonds and 1 lone pair 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs 2 Bonds

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5 domains: Trigonal bipyramidal seesaw T-shaped linear 6 domains: octahedral square pyramidal square planar YES!!! You have to be able to recognize all of the shapes and name them!! Bond angle: 120 o in plane and 90 o above and below Bond angle: 90 o 5 bonds 4 bonds 1 lone pair 3 bonds 2 lone pair 2 bonds 3 lone pair 6 bonds 5 bonds 1 lone pair 4 bonds 2 lone pair

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