climate change adaptation and drr: ecosysem approach


Presentation Description

The presentation as expert panelist on UNDP session on Ecosystem Approach to Climate change adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction, at MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, under National Policy Dialogue on Climate change actions 2010 October. Chennai and followed by National Dialogue in Parliament Annexie at New Delhi.


Presentation Transcript

Disaster Management and Climate Change Adaptation – with focus on ecosystem based approaches : 

Disaster Management and Climate Change Adaptation – with focus on ecosystem based approaches Dr. Anil K. Gupta Associate Professor (Policy, Planning, Environment) National Institute of Disaster Management New Delhi – 110 002

Environment, climate-change and disasters : 

Environment, climate-change and disasters

Environ-disaster interface : 

Environ-disaster interface Environmental Hazards Complex Population Growth Losses Poverty Low coping capacity High Exposure to Hazard Locations High Vulnerability Hazard / Trigger event Major Disaster Losses Source: 2008(5) Publication

Disaster Impacts : 

Disaster Impacts

Disaster-Environment Impact Matrix : 

Disaster-Environment Impact Matrix D=Direct, I=Indirect, S=Secondary, L=Less, C=Case specific

Development : 

Model of Sustainability (left) and Un-sustainability (right) Development

Agro-ecosystems, Urban Ecosystems, Engineered-Ecosystems : 

Agro-ecosystems, Urban Ecosystems, Engineered-Ecosystems ..75% people living in rural areas, dependent on Agriculture. ..43% of India’s geographical area under agriculture, major role in economy Agriculture is not only a food-production system but a large assemblage of interacting land, water, air/climate, life-forms, representing ecosystems.. Urban Land-use, Urban Wetlands, lakes, lagoons.., Urban heat island syndrome, Urban forests, plantations, urban agriculture Rivers as eco-systems Man-made systems for fisheries, aquaculture, etc.

View point: outside a political manual of drought declaration : 

View point: outside a political manual of drought declaration DROUGHT SEQUENCE Meteorological Hydrological Environmental Habitation Agriculture Ecosystems Socio-economic Drought

Slide 9: 

Disasters, Risk Reduction, Mainstreaming options control

Slide 10: 

DM Paradigm Shift Response Centric Relief Centric Mitigation centric Preparedness centric Disaster Centric Hazard Centric Vulnerability Centric Environment Centric From Relief to Risk Reduction From Compartmental to Integration From Ad-hoc to Organized From Single hazard to multi-hazard Disaster Risk Reduction 2nd Paradigm shift


DISASTER A catastrophe, mishap, calamity in any area, arising from natural or man made causes, which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering, damage destruction of, property, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area. (DM Act, 2005, India)

Disaster - types: Naturally-classified… : 

Disaster - types: Naturally-classified… Environmental (natural or man-made) Geo-hydrological Biological Chemical Fires (forest, grassland, agri.) Epidemics…. Technological & civil / sectorial Rail, Industrial (Electrical, Mechanical, chemical..), Nuclear, Aviation, Road… Security threats Terrorism, sabotage, bomb blast… War Festival related – Stempede etc. Originating in environment

Related Policies : 

Related Policies Environmental Policy Planning Commission Working Plan 2009-12 Environment & Forests Disaster Management Policy Land-use Policies Agriculture Policy Water Policy Voluntary Sector Policy WRD & Hydro-Power policy Rural Development (land resources) Housing Policy Forest Policy Statement of Climate Change Right to Information Map Policy

Pro-Active Approach - Tools : 

Pro-Active Approach - Tools Environmental/Natural Resource Laws Environmental Impact Assessment Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Risk Assessment Disaster Occurrence Risk, Disaster Impact Risk Environmental / Eco-Auditing Natural Resource Accounting Ecological Footprints of Disasters Economic Evaluation of Environmental Impacts Environmental-health Response Preparedness Environmental Services in Emergencies

.. Challenges : 

.. Challenges Very few Indian case studies of ecosystem approach available. Documentation of good and bad practices needed. Other than certain community based ecosystem managements, others notable are Mangroves for the Future, Re-vegetating Garhwal Himalaya… Fragmented environmental governance:…eg. Ministry of Environment and Forests Ministry of Earth Sciences Ministry of Science & Technology Ministry of Rural Development (Dpt. Land Resources) Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperation Ministry of Water Resources (CWC, CGWB….) PM Council on Climate-change Ministry of Urban Development (Waste Management, Land-use)

Ecosystem Approach - Challenges : 

Ecosystem Approach - Challenges Except in coastal and mountain areas, ‘environment’ is much talked and ‘less understood’ and ‘least priority’ concern at implementation level in India. ‘Environment’ is synonym to ‘Pollution’, ‘chemicals’, and ‘trees’. System approach on environment is ‘least known’. Perception of policy makers, legislators and senior decision makers on environment is limited. Environmental science – research and education in the country is fragmented in domain concerns – very few working on system approach. There is no common consortia for sectors of environment and meeting point with DRR fraternity in the present governance system, except the initiatives of the academia, NGOs, UN system ……

Risk Analysis : 

Risk Analysis Environmental Risk Analysis Hazard Identification and Analysis Ecosystem-Health Risk Assessment Ecological Risk Analysis Safety/Disaster Risk Assessment Environmental impact assessment (anticipatory) Health Risk Assessment Consequence Assessment (Humanitarian Crisis) Environmental Impact Assessment (of Mitigation Projects/Options) Strategic Environmental Assessment (EIA of Policy, Plan, Programmes) EIA of Disasters

Some Initiatives : 

Some Initiatives ‘Environment and Disasters’ modules (NIDM) Environment and Disasters – Role of Space Technology & GIS (National, New Delhi) Environment and Disasters – Land, Water and Agriculture Concerns (National, New Delhi) Environment and Disasters – Urban Environment (National, New Delhi) Mountain Environment and Disasters (State, Assam) Forestry Sector and Disaster Management (NIDM-FRI/ICFRE), National, Dehradun Role of Environmental Statistics in Disaster Management (Indo-German Workshop) Role of EIAs in Disaster Management (introductory)

…initiatives : 

…initiatives Ongoing/Proposed: Guidelines and Tools for Mainstreaming DRR into Environment Sector (UNDP-NIDM) International Workshop on “Environmental-systems and Hydro-met Disasters: Mitigation, Response and Development”, 2011 (UNEP-NIDM…….) Agriculture Information System and Disasters 2011 (NIDM-NAARM/ICAR) EIA Guidelines for Disaster Management ? Documentation of ‘ecosystem based DRR approaches’ (UNEP-NIDM)

Education & Coordination Multidisciplinary Vs. Interdisciplinary : 

Education & Coordination Multidisciplinary Vs. Interdisciplinary

Thank You : 

Thank You Website: Email (Dr. Anil K Gupta, Officer in Charge – Training Division, NIDM, New Delhi.,

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