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Premium member Presentation Transcript Doing Business with the EU -Waste management regulations: implications to electrical and electronic industries in Thailand Implementing the WEEE Directive in the Mobile Phone Industry : Doing Business with the EU -Waste management regulations: implications to electrical and electronic industries in Thailand Implementing the WEEE Directive in the Mobile Phone Industry EOTC aisbl • Rue de Stassart, 36 • B-1050 Brussels • BelgiumTel +32 2 502 41 41 • Fax +32 2 502 42 39 • Email: email@example.com www.eotc.be Mr Vic Clements, BSc, MSc, CEng, MIEE, AIEMA, FInstSMM, EOTC expert Location; Bangkok, Date; 29th January 2004 Objective of Presentation : EOTC2003© - #2 Objective of Presentation To review the practical issues of implementing the WEEE directive in the Mobile Phone Industry Issues to Cover : EOTC2003© - #3 Definition of WEEE in Mobile Phones Existing practices and flow of waste phones How Articles will be implemented The Mobile Tale Back Forum Codes of Practice for Refurbishing, reselling and recycling mobiles Practical issues of meeting recycling targets Issues to Cover Mobile Phone Industry in Europe : EOTC2003© - #4 Mobile Phone Industry in Europe Predicted GSM handset sales in 2004 – 150 million growing at average 5- 7% p.a. 20 million + in UK Typical handset weight – 130g Annual Weight of WEEE phones – 2600 tonnes 3G on horizon Source: Micrologix Major Issues : EOTC2003© - #5 Major Issues When does a phone become WEEE? Significant proportion of mobiles currently refurbished and resold Rapid innovation Treatment Design for disassembly and recycling When does a mobile phone become WEEE? : EOTC2003© - #6 When does a mobile phone become WEEE? The current industry preferred definition is that a phone is considered waste when it has been assessed and deemed beyond economical repair (Point A ) A working phone or one in the process of assessment or repair is considered to be a “second hand product” and not classified as waste. To be reviewed following input from the Environment Agency Likely to be changed to the point at which it is no longer required and is discarded by the first user (Point B) This has major impact on collection facilities which will need Waste Management Licence Flow of Waste Mobile Phones : EOTC2003© - #7 Flow of Waste Mobile Phones A B Recycling Flows : EOTC2003© - #8 Recycling Flows Refurbish and Re-use : EOTC2003© - #9 Refurbish and Re-use Implementation Issues (1) : EOTC2003© - #10 Implementation Issues (1) Product Design Ease of disassembly Material choice. Separate Collection (must be separate from other WEEE!) In store Mailed in envelopes Service centres By Charities or VGs Refurbishment and reuse Quality and compliance issues Implementation Issues (2) : EOTC2003© - #11 Implementation Issues (2) Treatment Dismantling and removal of components Major cost contributor Identification of material content required prior to treatment Recovery and Recycling Economies of scale Pooled resources Construction limitations Market for re-cycled materials WEEE-Treatment of Electrical and Electronic Equipment : EOTC2003© - #12 WEEE-Treatment of Electrical and Electronic Equipment Separation of hazardous componentsand materials at end of life including: Asbestos waste and components containing asbestos Mercury containing components Batteries Printed circuit boards over 10 square cms (all mobiles) Toner cartridges, liquid and pasty as well as colour Cathode ray tubes Liquid crystal displays over 100 square cms Electrolyte capacitors Capacitors containing Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Plastics containing brominated flame retardants External electric cables Materials in a Mobile Phone : EOTC2003© - #13 Materials in a Mobile Phone Others: <1 w-% Cr Pb Nd Zn W Al Ag PET Pd Au Sb Ti PA Bi Li Co Zi Be PE Y Courtesy of Nokia Financing Options : EOTC2003© - #14 Financing Options Provision of Information : EOTC2003© - #15 Provision of Information Article 10 – Information for Users For new and reused phones Article 11 – Information for treatment facilities No obligation on producers in UK Treatment centres will insist on knowing material content – licence conditions Article 12 – Information and Reporting Individual or consortium reporting to Clearing House The Mobile Take Back Forum : EOTC2003© - #16 The Mobile Take Back Forum Industry Association Run by Federation of Communications Services Produces guidelines, codes of practice and input to government Code of Practice for Refurbishment and Recycling of Mobile Phones : EOTC2003© - #17 Code of Practice for Refurbishment and Recycling of Mobile Phones Aims Environmental protection, sustainable development and consumer protection Facilitating compliance with WEEE and all other relevant directives and national legislation Ensuring UK practices are in line with UNEP directions or guidance Grading of Phones for Resale : EOTC2003© - #18 Grading of Phones for Resale Reusable phones may fall into one of the following categories: 14 Day Returns In the original box and returned complete with battery charger and manual Refurbished Grade A In the original box, with an unmarked original case or an unmarked replacement complete with original battery and charger Refurbished Grade B Used but in good condition and working order, with the original case with or without battery and charger Phones for refurbishing Grade C Phones that arrive as a handset only or with a battery are repaired and reconditioned, prior to testing and resale Beyond Economic Repair in the UK Phones that are beyond economic repair in the UK market may be suitable for an overseas market and will be handled according to the Basel convention. COP for Refurbishers and Repairers of Mobile Phones : EOTC2003© - #19 COP for Refurbishers and Repairers of Mobile Phones Process Quality Standards Registered EMS, ISO 14001 or EMAS Audited Health and Safety Regime QMS based on ISO 9001 Comply with Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 Data Protection Grade products destined for reuse 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Trans boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal and EU Regulation 259/93 on the Supervision and Control of Shipments of Waste COP for Recyclers and Reprocessors of Mobile Phones : EOTC2003© - #20 COP for Recyclers and Reprocessors of Mobile Phones Process Quality Standards Registered EMS, ISO 14001 or EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme). Registered Health and Safety Regime to ISO 18001 QMS based on ISO 9001 Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994. EPA approved Waste Management License will be mandatory active research into diversion from landfill Data Protection comply with the requirements of the WEEE directive on reporting 1989 Basel Convention Code of Practice for Refurbishment and Recycling of Mobile Phones : EOTC2003© - #21 Code of Practice for Refurbishment and Recycling of Mobile Phones Safety and standards compliance after repair or refurbishment for reuse The R&TTE Directive and it's essential requirements The product design standards (including, but not limited to GSM, 3G or analogue mobile communications systems specifications) Certification criteria (including, but not limited to Global Certification forum -GCF- and PCS type approval certification review board- PTCRB the repairer to consult the OEM for guidance on correct tests and test methods Product compliance and certification policy statement grEEEn Case Study at Motorola : EOTC2003© - #22 grEEEn Case Study at Motorola UMTS phone Talon (A820) Life Cycle Phases studied: Materials Extraction Component Manufacturing (PWB, ICs, battery, LCD) Phone Manufacturing (logistics, line, overheads, etc) Use Environmental Impacts: Energy (CO2) Life Cycle Costs: Costs (US$) Life Cycle Analysis : EOTC2003© - #23 Life Cycle Analysis Observations : EOTC2003© - #24 Observations Materials have highest costs AND environmental impacts Reduce both at the same time! Manufacturing cost drivers are not environmental impact drivers Reduction has to focus on cost OR environment Use phase has only environmental impacts Electricity too cheap? Provider costs were not taken into account End of life is a limited cost and energy contributor Main Cost Driver of WEEE Recycling : EOTC2003© - #25 Main Cost Driver of WEEE Recycling Processing/ recycling Disposal Palladium Silver Gold +++ ++ + 0 - -- --- Revenues Manual labour Metal recycling Costs Battery removal PWB removal Button- cell removal LCD removal Manual labour Auto- mated removal Shredding, separation Copper Other metals Shred- ding & separation Metal recycling Plastics recycling Plastic recycling Plastic LCD recycling Glass LCD recycling EOL LCD and plastic residue Incin- eration or disposal Manual labour Mobile phone housing opening Process steps of WEEE-conform recycling process Manual labour Use as building material Cement works 1 3 3a 2 5a 4 3b 6a 5c 6b 5b 6c EOL for slack from metal recovery EOL plastic residue (non- brominated) Removal of: Battery, PWB, Button cell (and LCD) Manual dismantling Recovery and Recycling Targets : EOTC2003© - #26 Recovery and Recycling Targets Achieving the Recycling Rate (65%) : EOTC2003© - #27 Achieving the Recycling Rate (65%) Main parts Recycling rate per component Total recycling rate WEEE-requirement: min. 65% Housing 15-55 % PWB 20-35 % LCD 1-10 % Residue 20-60 % Implications for Design : EOTC2003© - #28 Implications for Design Recycling Optimized Design : EOTC2003© - #29 Recycling Optimized Design Painted Housing : EOTC2003© - #30 Painted Housing Paint inhibits recycling Pigmented plastic meets customer requirements? Pigmented plastic allows maximal recycling rate of plastic Housing Fraction : EOTC2003© - #31 Housing Fraction Loudspeaker integrated on PWB or integrated in housing Both options commonly used Higher recycling rate when loudspeaker integrated on PWB (PWB fraction larger, plastic purer) Battery Removal : EOTC2003© - #32 Battery Removal Separate battery and battery door, but can be integrated Both options commonly used Separate battery and battery door have higher recycling rate (plastic fraction higher) Active Disassembly : EOTC2003© - #33 Active Disassembly Automated disassembly using shape memory polymers (ADSM project) Further development of materials and integration into products Faster, more cost efficient disassembly Conclusions : EOTC2003© - #34 Conclusions Environmental awareness and legislation (WEEE, RoHS and EuP directives) challenge industry to Reduce environmental impacts Reduce life cycle costs to ensure competitiveness Major challenge of WEEE for mobile phones Achievement of 65% recycling rate Cost of PWB removal Design changes are necessary for Achievement of recycling rate Reduction of manual dismantling Summary : EOTC2003© - #35 Summary WEEE directive will have major impact on Mobile Phones Designs will be driven to optimise recycling and ease of disassembly Greater control needed on reuse Major players will need to cooperate Mobile Phones will constitute a separate waste stream Questions : Thank you… Please feel free to contact us firstname.lastname@example.org EOTC aisbl • Rue de Stassart, 36 • B-1050 Brussels • BelgiumTel +32 2 502 41 41 • Fax +32 2 502 42 39 • Email: email@example.com www.eotc.be Questions You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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