logging in or signing up Anatomy and Physiology emmamariz19 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 396 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: November 21, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description Anatomy and Physiology of Skin, Skeletal System, Muscular System, Nervous System, And Endocrine System Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Anatomy and physiology: Anatomy and physiology By: Emma Mariz GarciaIntegumentary System : Integumentary System Function of the Skin Protection Covers internal structure and protects them from the external environment Synthesizes Vit. D Exposure to UV light causes skin to make vit . D Liver and Kidney turn Vitamin D into calcitriol Calcitriol regulates calcium and phosphorous productionFunction of the Skin : Function of the Skin Sensory reception Specialized nerves in the skin Receive messages of touch, pressure, pain and temperature Temperature Regulation Sweat gland w/in the skin Evaporate coolingLayers of the Skin: Layers of the Skin 3 Major Layers a. Epidermis b. Dermis c. SubcutaneousEpidermis: Epidermis Outer layer Thin Divided into 2 layers -Stratum Germinativum Superior to dermis Produce cells of epidermis -Stratum Corneum Tough layer of epidermis Protects body from water loss and gainDermis: Dermis Region of connective tissue Under epidermis Contains collagenous and elastic fibers There are flexible, but also resilient Sensory Nerves Take nerve impulses from the skinSubcutaneous : Subcutaneous Under the dermis Fatty layer Energy Storage Insulation Protection Can result in obesityOther parts of skin: Other parts of skin Hair Project from follicles in the dermis Smooth muscles attached to hair root Nails Grow from nail root Visible part of the nail is nail body Cuticle covers nail rootOther parts of skin: Other parts of skin Sweat glands Found in all regions of the skin Evaporate cooling Sebaceous glands Secrete oil into the hair follicle WaterproofingSkin : Skin A.K.A Integument which means “covering” Insulates and cushions the deeper body organ Protects the entire body from any damage Upper most layer is full of “KERATIN and CORNIFIED” Rich in capillary network and sweat glandSkeletal System: Skeletal SystemSkeletal System: Skeletal System Function of the Skeletal System Supports the body Protects innards Production of blood cells Provide place for muscle attachment Store various minerals and saltsSkeletal System: Skeletal System Made up of 206 different bones 4 Basic Shapes Long bones: Femur Short bones: wrist and ankle Flat bones : Skulls and scapula Irregular Bones: VertebraeSkeleton is divided in to Parts: Skeleton is divided in to Parts Axial Skeleton : 80 bones. Which forms the longitudinal axis in the body (skull, vertebrae, & bony thorax) Appendicular Skeleton : composed of 126 bones of the limbs and the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which attach the limbs to the axial skeletonParts of the Bone Structure: Parts of the Bone StructureParts of the Bone Structure: Parts of the Bone Structure Periosteum tough outer cover of the bone Contains blood vessels Compact bone Dense bone Made of osteocytesParts of the Bone Structure: Parts of the Bone Structure Spongy bone Lighter and less dense than compact bon Still strong Marrow Red and yellowParts of the Bone Structure: Parts of the Bone Structure Epiphysis Expanded part of long bone at each end Diaphysis Part between epiphysis Articular Cartilage Cartilage at a jointThree Types of Bone Cells: Three Types of Bone Cells Osteoblast ( Bone forming) Osteocytes (Mature Bone Cells) Osteoclasts ( Bone Dissolving)Fractures: Fractures Breaks in bones Body able to repair Possible problems if not set by the doctor Main descriptors used with fracturesTypes of Fractures: Types of Fractures Comminuted: Bone breaks into many fragments Compression: Bone is crushed Depressed: broken bone portion is pressed inward Impacted : broken bone ends are into each other Spiral: Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone Greenstick: Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaksMuscular System: Muscular SystemMuscular System: Muscular System Functions Produce movement Maintaining Posture Stabilizing joint Generalizing heatTypes of Muscles: Types of Muscles Smooth Involuntary Walls of hollow organs Cardiac Involuntary Skeletal Voluntary Attached to the skeletonStructure of Skeletal Muscle: Structure of Skeletal Muscle Fascia Covering of muscle Become the tendons Myofibrils Muscle fibers ContractionParts of Myofibrils: Parts of Myofibrils Actin Thin filaments Contraction Myosin Thick filaments ContractionNervous System: Nervous SystemNervous System: Nervous System Master controlling and communicating system of the body 3 functions Monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body (stimuli) and then gathered information is the sensory input Processes and interpret the sensory input and makes decision what should be done (integration) Effects as response by activating muscle or glands via MOTOR OUTPUTNervous System: Nervous System Does not work alone in regulating and maintaining body homeostasis Endocrine system is the 2 nd important regulating systemStructural Classification: Structural Classification Central Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal cord act as integrating and command centers of the nervous system Peripheral Nervous System outside the CNS Consists of nerves Spinal Nerves – impulses to and from the spinal cord Cranial Nerves – impulses to and from the brainPNS Functional Classification: PNS Functional Classification Sensory(afferent) Division keeps the CNS constantly informed of events going on both inside and outside the body Motor (efferent) Division activate muscles and organs, they effect a motor response 2 subdivision Somatic nervous system Voluntary Autonomic Nervous System involuntary2 Principal types of cells: 2 Principal types of cells Supporting cells NeuronsSupporting Cells in CNS: Supporting Cells in CNS “lumped together” as NEUROGLIA Has many types of cells that support, insulate, and protect the delicate neuronsCNS Glia : CNS Glia Astrocytes star shaped cells account nearly half of the neural tissue form a living barrier between capillaries and neurons and play a role in making exchanges between the two Help protects the neurons from harmful substances Help control the chemical environment in the brain by picking up excess ions and recapturing release neurotransmittersCNS Glia: CNS Glia Microglia Spiderlike phagocytes It dispose debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria Ependymal Cells Line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord Beating of their cilia helps to circulate the CSF that fills the cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNSCNS Glia: CNS Glia Oligodendrocytes Wrap the flat extensions tightly around the nerve fibers Produce fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheathPNS Glia: PNS Glia Schwann Cells form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in CNS Satellite Cells Act as protective, cushioning cellsFunctional Classification and Structural Classification: Functional Classification and Structural Classification Sa book Lang lantaw. Kapoi Type2 Major Functions of Neurons: 2 Major Functions of Neurons Irritability the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into the nerve impulse Conductivity the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glandsCentral Nervous System (Functional Anatomy of the Brain): Central Nervous System (Functional Anatomy of the Brain) Cerebral Hemispheres Called Cerebrum Most superior part of the brain Enclose and obscure most of the brain stem Gyri - elevated ridges of tissue cells Sulci - shallow grooves that separates Gyri Fissures – deeper grooves w/c separates large regions of the brain Broca’s Area – involved in ability to speakPowerPoint Presentation: Parietal Lobe Cognition Information Processing Pain and Touch Sensation Spatial Orientation Speech Visual PerceptionPowerPoint Presentation: Damage to the left parietal lobe can result in what is called "Gerstmann's Syndrome. includes right-left confusion difficulty with writing (agraphia) difficulty with mathematics (acalculia). It can also produce disorders of language (aphasia) inability to perceive objects normally (agnosia).PowerPoint Presentation: Damage to the right parietal lobe can result in neglecting part of the body or space (contralateral neglect), which can impair many self-care skills such as dressing and washing. Caused difficulty in making things (constructional apraxia) denial of deficits (anosagnosia) drawing ability.PowerPoint Presentation: Bi-lateral damage (large lesions to both sides) can cause "Balint's Syndrome," a visual attention and motor syndrome. inability to voluntarily control the gaze (ocular apraxia) inability to integrate components of a visual scene (simultanagnosia) inability to accurately reach for an object with visual guidance (optic ataxia)Frontal Lobe: Frontal Lobe motor function problem solving Spontaneity Memory Language Initiation Judgment impulse control social and sexual behavior.PowerPoint Presentation: frontal lobe damage exhibit little spontaneous facial expression, which points to the role of the frontal lobes in facial expression Broca's Aphasia , or difficulty in speaking, has been associated with frontal damage frontal damage displayed fewer spontaneous facial movements, spoke fewer words (left frontal lesions) or excessively (right frontal lesions). difficulty in interpreting feedback from the environmentOccipital Lobes: Occipital Lobes center of our visual perception system Visual Perception Color Recognition not particularly vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the brainPowerPoint Presentation: trauma to the brain could produce subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects and scotomas Damage to one side of the occipital lobe causes homonomous loss of vision with exactly the same "field cut" in both eyes. visual hallucinations and illusions]Temporal Lobe: Temporal Lobe Emotional Responses Hearing Memory Speech8 principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage: 8 principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage disturbance of auditory sensation and perception disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input disorders of visual perception impaired organization and categorization of verbal material disturbance of language comprehension impaired long-term memory altered personality and affective behavior altered sexual behavior.Diencephalon (Interbrain): Diencephalon (Interbrain) Major Structures Thalamus relay station for sensory impulses passing upward to the sensory cortex Hypothalamus Regulate body temperature, water balance, and metabolism Center of many drives and emotions Epithalamus Important parts Pineal Body Choroid Body – form the CSFBrain Stem: Brain Stem Major Structures Midbrain Reflex centers involved w/ vision and hearing Pons Control of breathing Medulla Oblongata Centers that control Heart rate Blood pressure Breathing Swallowing VomitingReticular formation: Reticular formation Involved in motor control of the visceral organs Reticular Activating System (RAS) Plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles Damage to this area can result in permanent unconsciousness (coma)Cerebellum: Cerebellum Provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity Controls our balance and equilibriumProtection of the CNS: Protection of the CNS Meninges connective tissue membranes covering and protecting the CNS Meningeal Layer Dura Mater Outermost layer “tough of hard mother” Arachnoid mater Middle layer Pia Mater Innermost layerCerebrospinal Fluid: Cerebrospinal Fluid Watery “broth” similar in its makeup to blood and plasma Contains less protein, more Vit. C, and ion composition is different Forms a watery cushion that protects the fragile nervous tissue from blows and traumaEndocrine System: Endocrine SystemEndocrine System: Endocrine System Uses chemical messenger called HORMONESChemistry of Hormones: Chemistry of Hormones Hormones – chemical substances that are secreted by the cells into the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic activity of other cells in the bodyMechanism of Hormone Action: Mechanism of Hormone Action Target cells / Target organs hormones affects only certain tissue cells/ organsMajor Endocrine Organs: Major Endocrine Organs Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal Pineal Thymus glands Pancreas GonadsMajor Endocrine Organs: Major Endocrine Organs Hypothalamus is considered as a major endocrine organPituitary Gland: Pituitary Gland Two functional Lobe Anterior Pituitary Posterior PituitaryHormones of Anterior Pituitary: Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Tropic Hormones – stimulates the target organs to secrete hormones All AP hormones are proteins (peptides) act through second messenger systems regulated by hormonal stimuli and in most cases, negative feedbackHormones of Anterior Pituitary: Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Growth Hormone Metabolic Hormone Major effects are directed to: Growth of skeletal muscles and long bones of the body Play important role in determining final body sizeHormones of Anterior Pituitary: Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Prolactin (PRL) protein hormone Known target is the “BREAST” Stimulates and maintains milk production Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal glandHormones of Anterior Pituitary: Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland Gonadotropic Hormone Regulate the hormonal activity of the gonad Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulates follicle development in the ovaries Luteinizing Hormone triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary and causes the ruptured follicle to produce progesterone and some estrogen Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone LH in men stimulates tertosterone productionHormones of Posterior Pituitary: Hormones of Posterior Pituitary Oxytocin release during childbirth and nursing women stimulates powerful contractions of the uterine muscle Causes milk ejection Stop postpartum bleedingHormones of Posterior Pituitary: Hormones of Posterior Pituitary Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urine as a result urine volume decreases and blood volume increases Increase BP by constricting the arterioles sometimes referred as VASOPRESSINThyroid Gland: Thyroid Gland Hormone producing gland Makes 2 hormones Thyroid Hormone – derive from colliod CalcitoninThyroid Gland: Thyroid Gland Thyroid Hormone Body major’s metabolic hormone 2 active iodine containing hormone Thyroxine (T4) Major hormone secreted by the thyroid follicle Triiodothyronine (T3) controls the rate @ w/c glucose in “burned”, or oxidized, and converted to body heat and chemical energy important for normal tissue growth and developmentThyroid Gland: Thyroid Gland Calcitonin (Thyrocalcitonin) decreases blood calcium level made by the so-called C (parafollicular) cells found in connective tissue between the follicles Released directly to the blood Hypocalcemic hormoneParathyroid Gland: Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) or parathormone Important regulator of calcium ion homeostasis of the blood a hypercalcemic hormone Stimulates the kidneys and intestine to absorb more calciumAdrenal Glands: Adrenal Glands Hormones of Adrenal Cortex produces three major groups of steroid hormones collectively called – CORTICOSTERIODS Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Sex HormonesHormones of Adrenal Cortex : Hormones of Adrenal Cortex Mineralocorticoids mainly aldosterone important in regulating the mineral (salt) content of the blood Particularly Na & K concentration Target is the KINDEY TUBULES that selectively reabsorb the minerals Help regulate both water and electrolyte balance in body fluidsHormones of Adrenal Cortex: Hormones of Adrenal Cortex Glucocorticoids include cortisone and cortisol promote normal cell metabolism help the body to resist long0-term stressors hyperglycemic hormones control unpleasant effects of inflammation by decreasing edema reduce pain by inhibiting some pain causing molecules called – PROSTAGLANDIN released from the adrenal cortex in response to rising blood levels of ACTHHormones of Adrenal Cortex: Hormones of Adrenal Cortex Sex Hormones produced in relatively small amounts androgens ( male sex hormones) estrogens (female sex hormones)Hormones of Adrenal Medulla: Hormones of Adrenal Medulla Stimulated by sympathetic hormone Releases two similar hormones referred as CATECHOLAMINES: epinephrine (adrenaline) norepinephrine “misplaced sympathetic nervous system ganglion”Pancreatic Islets: Pancreatic Islets Formerly called the “Islets of Langerhans” 2 important hormones it produced: Insulin release by beta cells acts on all body cells and increases the ability to transport glucose across the plasma membrane Hypoglycemic effects Glucagon antagonist of the insulin release by alpha cells stimulated by low blood level of glucose hyperglycemic effectsPineal Gland: Pineal Gland Function is still a mystery Secretes Melatonin it levels rise and fall during the course of the day and night peak levels occur @ night that make us drowsy daylight around noon is the lowest level believe to be “sleep” trigger plays important role in establishing the body’s day-night cycle coordinate the hormones of fertility inhibit the reproductive systemThymus Gland: Thymus Gland Large in infants and children Decreases size throughout adulthood Produce a hormone THYMOSIN During childhood, Thymus acts as an incubator for the maturation of a special group of WBC (T cells) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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