Caring in Nursing Practice : Caring in Nursing Practice What is caring? : What is caring? Caring is a universal phenomenon that influences the way we think, feel, and behave Caring : Caring Theoretical Views on Caring : Theoretical Views on Caring Florence Nightingale studied caring.
In the 1980s Patricia Benner with Judith Wrubel offered another definition of caring. The Essence of Nursing and Health : The Essence of Nursing and Health Madeleine Leininger (1978) studied caring from a transcultural perspective.
Caring is an essential human need.
Caring helps an individual or group improve a human condition.
Caring helps to protect, develop, nurture, and sustain people. Transpersonal Caring : Transpersonal Caring Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring (1988, 1979)
Holistic view of nursing that promotes healing and wholeness
Rejects the disease orientation to health care; Places care before cure
Emphasizes the nurse-client relationship Swanson’s Theory of Caring : Swanson’s Theory of Caring Kristen Swanson (1991)
A composite of three studies in a perinatal unit
Defines caring as a nurturing way of relating to a valued other, toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility Client’s Perception : Client’s Perception “Your are doing an OK job, but I can tell that every time you walk in that door you are walking out.” Client’s Perspective of Caring : Client’s Perspective of Caring Clients value the affective dimension of nursing care.
Recognizing an individual as unique
Keeping a close and attentive eye on the situation Ethic of Care : Ethic of Care Concerned with the relationship between the client and nurse and the attitude of each toward the other
Places the nurse as the client’s advocate who solves ethical dilemmas by creating a relationship
Gives priority to each client as a unique being Caring in Nursing Practice : Caring in Nursing Practice Behaviors include being present, providing a caring touch, and listening.
Caring is a product of culture, values, experiences, and relationships with others. Providing Presence : Providing Presence Touch : Touch Provides comfort
Creates a connection
Task-oriented touch Listening : Listening Creates trust
Opens lines of communication
Creates a mutual relationship Knowing the Client : Knowing the Client Develops over time
The core process of clinical decision making
Aspects of knowing include:
Responses to therapy, routines, and habits
Physical capacities and endurance Spiritual Care : Spiritual Care Spiritual health is achieved when a person can find a balance between their life values, goals and belief symptoms and those of others.
Spirituality offers a sense of interpersonal and transpersonal connectedness. Family Care : Family Care People experience life through relationship with others.
Caring does not occur in isolation from a client’s family.
Family is an integral resource. The Challenge of Caring : The Challenge of Caring Task-oriented care
Improved nurse-to-client ratios Critical Thinking : Critical Thinking Mrs. L. is a 52-year-old client being tx for lymphoma (cancer of lymph nodes) that occurred 6 years ago following a lung transplant. Mrs. L. is discouraged about her current health status and has a lot of what she describes as muscle pain. The unit where Mrs. L. is receiving care has a number of very sick clients and is short staffed.
a. You enter her room to do a morning assessment & find Mrs. L. crying. How are you going to use caring practices to help Mrs. L., knowing that your day has just begun and you have many nursing interventions to complete?
b. When you listened to Mrs. L., she explained that her muscle pain was very bothersome and it was particularly worse when she was alone. Both you and she determine that an injection for her pain would be beneficial. In what way can you show caring in the way you administer the injection to Mrs. L? NCLEX Question : NCLEX Question Listening is not “taking in” what a client says, it also includes:
Incorporating the views of the physician
Correcting any errors in the client’s understanding
Injecting the nurse’s personal views and statements
Interpreting and understanding what the client means NCLEX Question : NCLEX Question Presence involves a person-to-person encounter that:
Enables clients to care for self
Provides personal care to a client
Conveys a closeness and a sense of caring
Describes being in close contact with a client