Ekeeda - Mechatronics Engineering - Introduction to Mechatronics

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Mechatronics Engineering is a program in engineering that combines the fundamentals of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer engineering. It concentrates mainly on modeling, sensors, controllers, and real-time computer interfacing. Ekeeda offers Online Mechatronics Engineering Courses for all the Subjects as per the Syllabus.

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1 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONICS

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2 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING SYLLABUS MECHATRONICS 3-0-0 Fundamental of Mechantronics: Definition and concepts of Mechatronics Conventional system vs. mechatronic system Need and Role of Mechantronics in Design Manufacturing and Factory Automation. Hardware components for Mechatronics Number system in Mechatronics Binary Logic Karnaugh Map Minimization Transducer signal conditioning and Devices for Data conversion programmable controllers. Sensors and Transducers: An introduction to sensors and Transducers use of sensor and transducer for specific purpose in mechatronic. Signals systems and Actuating Devices: Introduction to signals systems and control system representation linearization of nonlinear systems time Delays measures of system performance types of actuating devices selection. Real time interfacing: Introduction Element of a Data Acquisition and control system overview of the I/O process. Installation of the I/O card and software. Application of software in Mechatronics: Advance application in Mechantronics. Sensors for conditioning Monitoring Mechatronic Control in Automated Manufacturing Micro sensors in Mechatronics. Case studies and examples in Data Acquisition and control. Automated manufacturing etc. Essential Reading: 1. C.W.De Silva Mechatronics: An Integrated Approach Publisher: CRC

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3 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Module-I What is “Mechatronics” Mechatronics is a concept of Japanese origin 1980’s and can be defined as the application of electronics and computer technology to control the motions of mechanical systems. Definition of Mechatronics It is a multidisciplinary approach to product and manufacturing system design Figure. It involves application of electrical mechanical control and computer engineering to develop products processes and systems with greater flexibility ease in redesign and ability of reprogramming. It concurrently includes all these disciplines. Mechatronics: a multi-disciplinary approach Mechatronics can also be termed as replacement of mechanics with electronics or enhance mechanics with electronics. For example in modern automobiles mechanical fuel injection systems are now replaced with electronic fuel injection systems. This replacement made the automobiles more efficient and less pollutant. With the help of microelectronics and sensor technology mechatronics systems are providing high levels of precision and reliability. It is now possible to move in x – y plane the work

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4 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING table of a modern production machine tool in a step of 0.0001 mm. By employment of reprogrammable microcontrollers/microcomputers it is now easy to add new functions and capabilities to a product or a system. Today’s domestic washing machines are “intelligent” and four-wheel passenger automobiles are equipped with safety installations such as air-bags parking proximity sensors antitheft electronic keys etc.

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5 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Concept of Mechatronics System

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6 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Evolution Level of Mechatronics 1. Primary Level Mechatronics: This level incorporates I/O devices such as sensors and actuators that integrates electrical signals with mechanical action at the basic control levels. Examples: Electrically controlled fluid valves and relays 2. Secondary Level Mechantronics: This level integrates microelectronics into electrically controlled devices. Examples: Cassette players 3. Third Level Mechatronics: This level incorporates advanced feedback functions into control strategy thereby enhancing the quality in terms of sophistication called smart system. The control strategy includes microelectronics microprocessor and other ‘ Application Specific Integrated Circuits’ ASIC Example: Control of Electrical motor used to activate industrial robots hard disk CD drives and automatic washing machines. 4. Fourth Level Mechatronics: This level incorporates intelligent control in mechatronics system. It introduces intelligence and fault detection and isolation FDI capability systems. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mechatronics system:

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7 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Components of Mechatronics system: The term mechatronics system sometimes referred to as smart device encompasses a myriad of devices and systems. Increasingly microcontrollers are embedded in the elctromechanical devices creating much more flexibility and control possibilities in system design. Components of a typical Mechatronics system Actuators: produce motion or cause some action. Solenoids voice calls DC motors Stepper motor servomotor hydraulic pneumatic. Sensors: detect the state of the system parameters inputs and outputs. Switches potentiometer photoelctrics digital encoder strain gauge thermocouple accelerometer etc.

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8 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Input/output Signal conditioning and interfacing: provide connection between the control system circuits and the input/output devices. Discrete circuits amplifiers filters A/D D/A power transistor etc. Digital devices: controls the system. Logic circuits micro controller SBC PLC etc Graphic Display: provide visual feed back to users. LEDs Digital Displays LCD CRT Importance of Mechatronics in automation: Operations involved in design and manufacturing of a product Today’s customers are demanding more variety and higher levels of flexibility in the products. Due to these demands and competition in the market manufacturers are thriving to launch new/modified products to survive. It is reducing the product life as well as lead-time to manufacture a product. It is therefore essential to automate the manufacturing and assembly operations of a product. There are various activities involved in the product manufacturing process. These are shown in figure 1.1.3. These activities can be classified into two groups viz. design and manufacturing activities.

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9 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Mechatronics concurrently employs the disciplines of mechanical electrical control and computer engineering at the stage of design itself. Mechanical discipline is employed in terms of various machines and mechanisms where as electrical engineering as various electric prime movers viz. AC/DC servo motors and other systems is used. Control engineering helps in the development of various electronics-based control systems to enhance or replace the mechanics of the mechanical systems. Computers are widely used to write various softwares to control the control systems product design and development activities materials and manufacturing resource planning record keeping market survey and other sales related activities. Using computer aided design CAD / computer aided analysis CAE tools three-dimensional models of products can easily be developed. These models can then be analyzed and can be simulated to study their performances using numerical tools. These numerical tools are being continuously updated or enriched with the real-life performances of the similar kind of products. These exercises provide an approximate idea about performance of the product/system to the design team at the early stage of the product development. Based on the simulation studies the designs can be modified to achieve better performances. During the conventional design- manufacturing process the design assessment is generally carried out after the production of first lot of the products. This consumes a lot of time which leads to longer in months/years product development lead-time. Use of CAD–CAE tools saves significant time in comparison with that required in the conventional sequential design process. CAD-CAE generated final designs are then sent to the production and process planning section. Mechatronics based systems such as computer aided manufacturing CAM: automatic process planning automatic part programming manufacturing resource planning etc. uses the design data provided by the design team. Based these inputs various activities will then be planned to achieve the manufacturing targets in terms of quality and quantity with in a stipulated time frame. Mechatronics based automated systems such as automatic inspection and quality assurance automatic packaging record making and automatic dispatch help to expedite the entire manufacturing operation. These systems certainly ensure a supply better quality well packed and reliable products in the market. Automation in the machine tools has reduced the human

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10 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING intervention in the machining operation and improved the process efficiency and product quality. Therefore it is important to study the principles of mechatronics and to learn how to apply them in the automation of a manufacturing system. Digital Codes: Logic Gates:

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14 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Module-II Sensors and Transducers: An introduction to sensors and Transducers use of sensor and transducer for specific purpose in mechatronics. Transducer signal conditioning and Devices for Data conversion programmable controllers. Sensors and transducers Measurement is an important subsystem of a mechatronics system. Its main function is to collect the information on system status and to feed it to the micro-processors for controlling the whole system. Measurement system comprises of sensors transducers and signal processing devices. Today a wide variety of these elements and devices are available in the market. For a mechatronics system designer it is quite difficult to choose suitable sensors/transducers for the desired applications. It is therefore essential to learn the principle of working of commonly used sensors/transducers. Sensors in manufacturing are basically employed to automatically carry out the production operations as well as process monitoring activities. Sensor technology has the following important advantages in transforming a conventional manufacturing unit into a modern one. Sensors alarm the system operators about the failure of any of the sub units of manufacturing system. It helps operators to reduce the downtime of complete manufacturing system by carrying out the preventative measures. Reduces requirement of skilled and experienced labors. Ultra-precision in product quality can be achieved. Sensor It is defined as an element which produces signal relating to the quantity being measured. According to the Instrument Society of America sensor can be defined as “A device which provides a usable output in response to a specified measurand.” Here the output is usually an ‘electrical quantity’ and measurand is a ‘physical quantity property or condition which is to be measured’. Thus in the case of say a variable inductance displacement

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15 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Sensor element the quantity being measured is displacement and the sensor transforms an input of displacement into a change in inductance. Input Signal Output Signal Sensors are also called detectors. Need for Sensors • Sensors are omnipresent. They embedded in our bodies automobiles airplanes cellular telephones radios chemical plants industrial plants and countless other applications. • Without the use of sensors there would be no automation Transducer It is defined as an element when subjected to some physical change experiences a related change or an element which converts a specified measurand into a usable output by using a transduction principle. It can also be defined as a device that converts a signal from one form of energy to another form. A wire of Constantan alloy copper-nickel 55-45 alloy can be called as a sensor because variation in mechanical displacement tension or compression can be sensed as change in electric resistance. This wire becomes a transducer with appropriate electrodes and input-output mechanism attached to it. Thus we can say that ‘sensors are transducers’. Basic elements of transducer • There are basically two elements which constructs a transducer and they are • A sensing ELEMENT

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16 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Sensor/transducers specifications Transducers or measurement systems are not perfect systems. Mechatronics design engineer must know the capability and shortcoming of a transducer or measurement system to properly assess its performance. There are a number of performance related parameters of a transducer or measurement system. These parameters are called as sensor specifications. Sensor specifications inform the user to the about deviations from the ideal behavior of the sensors. Following are the various specifications of a sensor/transducer system. 1. Range The range of a sensor indicates the limits between which the input can vary. For example a thermocouple for the measurement of temperature might have a range of 25-225 °C. 2. Span The span is difference between the maximum and minimum values of the input. Thus the above-mentioned thermocouple will have a span of 200 °C. 3. Error Error is the difference between the result of the measurement and the true value of the quantity being measured. A sensor might give a displacement reading of 29.8 mm when the actual displacement had been 30 mm then the error is –0.2 mm. 4. Accuracy The accuracy defines the closeness of the agreement between the actual measurement result and a true value of the measurand. It is often expressed as a percentage of the full range output or full–scale deflection. A

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17 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING piezoelectric transducer used to evaluate dynamic pressure phenomena associated with explosions pulsations or dynamic pressure conditions in motors rocket engines compressors and other pressurized devices is capable to detect pressures between 0.1 and 10000 psig 0.7 KPa to 70 MPa. If it is specified with the accuracy of about ±1 full scale then the reading given can be expected to be within ± 0.7 MPa. 5. Sensitivity Sensitivity of a sensor is defined as the ratio of change in output value of a sensor to the per unit change in input value that causes the output change. For example a general purpose thermocouple may have a sensitivity of 41 μV/°C. 6. Nonlinearity Non-linearity error The nonlinearity indicates the maximum deviation of the actual measured curve of a sensor from the ideal curve. Figure above shows a somewhat exaggerated relationship between the ideal or least squares fit line and the actual measured or calibration line. Linearity is often specified in terms of percentage of nonlinearity which is defined as: Nonlinearity Maximum deviation in input ⁄ Maximum full scale input 1 The static nonlinearity defined by Equation 1 is dependent upon environmental factors including temperature vibration acoustic noise level

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18 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING and humidity. Therefore it is important to know under what conditions the specification is valid. 7. Hysteresis Hysteresis error curve The hysteresis is an error of a sensor which is defined as the maximum difference in output at any measurement value within the sensor’s specified range when approaching the point first with increasing and then with decreasing the input parameter. Figure above shows the hysteresis error might have occurred during measurement of temperature using a thermocouple. The hysteresis error value is normally specified as a positive or negative percentage of the specified input range. 8. Resolution Resolution is the smallest detectable incremental change of input parameter that can be detected in the output signal. Resolution can be expressed either as a proportion of the full-scale reading or in absolute terms. For example if a LVDT sensor measures a displacement up to 20 mm and it provides an output as a number between 1 and 100 then the resolution of the sensor device is 0.2 mm. 9. Stability

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19 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Stability is the ability of a sensor device to give same output when used to measure a constant input over a period of time. The term ‘drift’ is used to indicate the change in output that occurs over a period of time. It is expressed as the percentage of full range output. 10. Dead band/time The dead band or dead space of a transducer is the range of input values for which there is no output. The dead time of a sensor device is the time duration from the application of an input until the output begins to respond or change. 11. Repeatability It specifies the ability of a sensor to give same output for repeated applications of same input value. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the full range output: Repeatability maximum – minimum values given X 100 ⁄ full range 2 12. Response time Response time describes the speed of change in the output on a step-wise change of the measurand. It is always specified with an indication of input step and the output range for which the response time is defined. Classification of sensors Sensors can be classified into various groups according to the factors such as measurand application fields conversion principle energy domain of the measurand and thermodynamic considerations. These general classifications of sensors are well described in the references Detail classification of sensors in view of their applications in manufacturing is as follows. A. Displacement position and proximity sensors • Potentiometer • Strain-gauged element • Capacitive element • Differential transformers • Eddy current proximity sensors • Inductive proximity switch

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20 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Optical encoders • Pneumatic sensors • Proximity switches magnetic • Hall effect sensors B. Velocity and motion • Incremental encoder • Tachogenerator • Pyroelectric sensors C. Force • Strain gauge load cell D. Fluid pressure • Diaphragm pressure gauge • Capsules bellows pressure tubes • Piezoelectric sensors • Tactile sensor E. Liquid flow • Orifice plate • Turbine meter F. Liquid level • Floats • Differential pressure G. Temperature • Bimetallic strips • Resistance temperature detectors • Thermistors • Thermo-diodes and transistors • Thermocouples • Light sensors • Photo diodes • Photo resistors • Photo transistor

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21 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Displacement and position sensors Displacement sensors are basically used for the measurement of movement of an object. Position sensors are employed to determine the position of an object in relation to some reference point. Proximity sensors are a type of position sensor and are used to trace when an object has moved with in particular critical distance of a transducer. Displacement sensors 1. Potentiometer Sensors Schematic of a potentiometer sensor for measurement of linear displacement Figure above shows the construction of a rotary type potentiometer sensor employed to measure the linear displacement. The potentiometer can be of linear or angular type. It works on the principle of conversion of mechanical displacement into an electrical signal. The sensor has a resistive element and a sliding contact wiper. The slider moves along this conductive body acting as a movable electric contact. The object of whose displacement is to be measured is connected to the slider by using • a rotating shaft for angular displacement • a moving rod for linear displacement

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22 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • a cable that is kept stretched during operation The resistive element is a wire wound track or conductive plastic. The track comprises of large number of closely packed turns of a resistive wire. Conductive plastic is made up of plastic resin embedded with the carbon powder. Wire wound track has a resolution of the order of ± 0.01 while the conductive plastic may have the resolution of about 0.1 μm. During the sensing operation a voltage Vs is applied across the resistive element. A voltage divider circuit is formed when slider comes into contact with the wire. The output voltage VA is measured as shown in the figure below. The output voltage is proportional to the displacement of the slider over the wire. Then the output parameter displacement is calibrated against the output voltage VA. Potentiometer: electric circuit Applications of potentiometer These sensors are primarily used in the control systems with a feedback loop to ensure that the moving member or component reaches its commanded position. These are typically used on machine-tool controls elevators liquid-level assemblies forklift trucks automobile throttle controls. In manufacturing these are used in control of injection molding machines woodworking

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23 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING machinery printing spraying robotics etc. These are also used in computer-controlled monitoring of sports equipment. Strain Gauges The strain in an element is a ratio of change in length in the direction of applied load to the original length of an element. The strain changes the resistance R of the element. Therefore we can say ΔR/R α ε ΔR/R G ε 2.2.5 where G is the constant of proportionality and is called as gauge factor. In general the value of G is considered in between 2 to 4 and the resistances are taken of the order of 100 Ω. A pattern of resistive foils

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24 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Whetstone’s bridge Resistance strain gauge follows the principle of change in resistance as per the equation 2.2.5. It comprises of a pattern of resistive foil arranged as shown in Figure 2.2.3. These foils are made of Constantan alloy copper- nickel 55-45 alloy and are bonded to a backing material plastic ployimide epoxy or glass fiber reinforced epoxy. The strain gauges are secured to the workpiece by using epoxy or Cyanoacrylate cement Eastman 910 SL. As the workpiece undergoes change in its shape due to external loading the resistance of strain gauge element changes. This change in resistance can be detected by a using a Wheatstone’s resistance bridge as shown in Figure 2.2.4. In the balanced bridge we can have a relation R2/ R1 Rx / R3 where Rx is resistance of strain gauge element R2 is balancing/adjustable resistor R1 and R3 are known constant value resistors. The measured deformation or displacement by the stain gauge is calibrated against change

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25 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING in resistance of adjustable resistor R2 which makes the voltage across nodes A and B equal to zero. Applications of strain gauges Strain gauges are widely used in experimental stress analysis and diagnosis on machines and failure analysis. They are basically used for multi-axial stress fatigue testing proof testing residual stress and vibration measurement torque measurement bending and deflection measurement compression and tension measurement and strain measurement. Strain gauges are primarily used as sensors for machine tools and safety in automotives. In particular they are employed for force measurement in machine tools hydraulic or pneumatic press and as impact sensors in aerospace vehicles. Capacitive element based sensor Capacitive sensor is of non-contact type sensor and is primarily used to measure the linear displacements from few millimeters to hundreds of millimeters. It comprises of three plates with the upper pair forming one capacitor and the lower pair another. The linear displacement might take in two forms: a. one of the plates is moved by the displacement so that the plate separation changes b. area of overlap changes due to the displacement. Figure below shows the schematic of three-plate capacitive element sensor and displacement measurement of a mechanical element connected to the plate 2.

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26 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Displacement measurement using capacitive element sensor The capacitance C of a parallel plate capacitor is given by C εr εo A / d where εr is the relative permittivity of the dielectric between the plates εo permittivity of free space A area of overlap between two plates and d the plate separation. As the central plate moves near to top plate or bottom one due to the movement of the element /workpiece of which displacement is to be measured separation in between the plate changes. This can be given as C1 εr εo A / d + x C2 εr εo A / d – x When C1 and C2 are connected to a Wheatsone’s bridge then the resulting out-of-balance voltage would be in proportional to displacement x. Capacitive elements can also be used as proximity sensor. The approach of the object towards the sensor plate is used for induction of change in plate separation. This changes the capacitance which is used to detect the object. Applications of capacitive element sensors

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27 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Feed hopper level monitoring • Small vessel pump control • Grease level monitoring • Level control of liquids • Metrology applications o to measure shape errors in the part being produced o to analyze and optimize the rotation of spindles in various machine tools such as surface grinders lathes milling machines and air bearing spindles by measuring errors in the machine tools themselves • Assembly line testing o to test assembled parts for uniformity thickness or other design features o to detect the presence or absence of a certain component such as glue etc. Linear variable differential transformer LVDT Construction of a LVDT sensor Linear variable differential transformer LVDT is a primary transducer used for measurement of linear displacement with an input range of about ± 2 to ± 400 mm in general. It has non-linearity error ± 0.25 of full range. Figure 2.2.6 shows the construction of a LVDT sensor. It has three coils symmetrically spaced along an insulated tube. The central coil is primary coil and the other two are secondary coils. Secondary coils are connected in series in such a way that their outputs oppose each other. A magnetic core attached to the element of which displacement is to be monitored is placed inside the insulated tube.

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28 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Working of LVDT sensor Due to an alternating voltage input to the primary coil alternating electro- magnetic forces emfs are generated in secondary coils. When the magnetic core is centrally placed with its half portion in each of the secondary coil regions then the resultant voltage is zero. If the core is displaced from the central position as shown in Figure 2.2.7 say more in secondary coil 1 than in coil 2 then more emf is generated in one coil i.e. coil 1 than the other and there is a resultant voltage from the coils. If the magnetic core is further displaced then the value of resultant voltage increases in proportion with the displacement. With the help of signal processing devices such as low pass filters and demodulators precise displacement can be measured by using LVDT sensors. LVDT exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility. It is generally used as an absolute position sensor. Since there is no contact or sliding between the constituent elements of the sensor it is highly reliable. These sensors are completely sealed and are widely used in Servomechanisms automated measurement in machine tools. A rotary variable differential transformer RVDT can be used for the measurement of rotation. Readers are suggested to prepare a report on principle of working and construction of RVDT sensor. Applications of LVDT sensors • Measurement of spool position in a wide range of servo valve applications • To provide displacement feedback for hydraulic cylinders • To control weight and thickness of medicinal products viz. tablets or pills

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29 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • For automatic inspection of final dimensions of products being packed for dispatch • To measure distance between the approaching metals during Friction welding process • To continuously monitor fluid level as part of leak detection system • To detect the number of currency bills dispensed by an ATM Displacement position and proximity sensors Eddy current proximity sensors Schematic of Inductive Proximity Sensor Eddy current proximity sensors are used to detect non-magnetic but conductive materials. They comprise of a coil an oscillator a detector and a triggering circuit. Figure 2.3.1 shows the construction of eddy current proximity switch. When an alternating current is passed thru this coil an alternative magnetic field is generated. If a metal object comes in the close proximity of the coil then eddy currents are induced in the object due to the magnetic field. These eddy currents create their own magnetic field which distorts the magnetic field responsible for their generation. As a result impedance of the coil changes and so the amplitude of alternating current. This can be used to trigger a switch at some pre-determined level of change in current. Eddy current sensors are relatively inexpensive available in small in size highly reliable and have high sensitivity for small displacements. Applications of eddy current proximity sensors • Automation requiring precise location • Machine tool monitoring

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30 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Final assembly of precision equipment such as disk drives • Measuring the dynamics of a continuously moving target such as a vibrating element • Drive shaft monitoring • Vibration measurements Pneumatic Sensors Working of Pneumatic Sensors Pneumatic sensors are used to measure the displacement as well as to sense the proximity of an object close to it. The displacement and proximity are transformed into change in air pressure. Figure 2.3.4 shows a schematic of construction and working of such a sensor. It comprises of three ports. Low pressure air is allowed to escape through port A. In the absence of any obstacle / object this low pressure air escapes and in doing so reduces the pressure in the port B. However when an object obstructs the low pressure air Port A there is rise in pressure in output port B. This rise in pressure is calibrated to measure the displacement or to trigger a switch. These sensors are used in robotics pneumatics and for tooling in CNC machine tools.

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31 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Proximity Switches Figure above shows a number of configurations of contact-type proximity switch being used in manufacturing automation. These are small electrical switches which require physical contact and a small operating force to close the contacts. They are basically employed on conveyor systems to detect the presence of an item on the conveyor belt. Hall effect sensor

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32 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Principle of working of Hall effect sensor Figure above shows the principle of working of Hall effect sensor. Hall effect sensors work on the principle that when a beam of charge particles passes through a magnetic field forces act on the particles and the current beam is deflected from its straight line path. Thus one side of the disc will become negatively charged and the other side will be of positive charge. This charge separation generates a potential difference which is the measure of distance of magnetic field from the disc carrying current. The typical application of Hall effect sensor is the measurement of fluid level in a container. The container comprises of a float with a permanent magnet attached at its top. An electric circuit with a current carrying disc is mounted in the casing. When the fluid level increases the magnet will come close to the disc and a potential difference generates. This voltage triggers a switch to stop the fluid to come inside the container. These sensors are used for the measurement of displacement and the detection of position of an object. Hall effect sensors need necessary signal conditioning circuitry. They can be operated at 100 kHz. Their non-contact nature of operation good immunity to environment contaminants and ability to sustain in severe conditions make them quite popular in industrial automation. Velocity motion force and pressure sensors Tachogenerator Principle of working of Techogenerator

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33 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Tachogenerator works on the principle of variable reluctance. It consists of an assembly of a toothed wheel and a magnetic circuit as shown in figure 2.4.1. Toothed wheel is mounted on the shaft or the element of which angular motion is to be measured. Magnetic circuit comprising of a coil wound on a ferromagnetic material core. As the wheel rotates the air gap between wheel tooth and magnetic core changes which results in cyclic change in flux linked with the coil. The alternating emf generated is the measure of angular motion. A pulse shaping signal conditioner is used to transform the output into a number of pulses which can be counted by a counter. Pyroelectric sensors Principle of pyroelectricity These sensors work on the principle of pyroelectricity which states that a crystal material such as Lithium tantalite generates charge in response to heat flow. In presence of an electric field when such a crystal material heats up its electrical dipoles line up as shown in figure 2.4.3. This is called as polarization. On cooling the material retains its polarization. In absence of electric field when this polarized material is subjected to infrared irradiation its polarization reduces. This phenomenon is the measure of detection of movement of an object.

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34 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Construction and working a Pyroelectric sensor Pyroelectric sensor comprises of a thick element of polarized material coated with thin film electrodes on opposite faces as shown in figure 2.4.4. Initially the electrodes are in electrical equilibrium with the polarized material. On incident of infra red the material heats up and reduces its polarization. This leads to charge imbalance at the interface of crystal and electrodes. To balance this disequilibrium measurement circuit supplies the charge which is calibrated against the detection of an object or its movement. Applications of Pyroelectric sensors • Intrusion detector • Optothermal detector • Pollution detector • Position sensor • Solar cell studies • Engine analysis

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35 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Strain Gauge as force Sensor Strain gauge based Load cell Strain gauge based sensors work on the principle of change in electrical resistance. When a mechanical element subjects to a tension or a compression the electric resistance of the material changes. This is used to measure the force acted upon the element. Figure above shows a strain gauge load cell. It comprises of cylindrical tube to which strain gauges are attached. A load applied on the top collar of the cylinder compress the strain gauge element which changes its electrical resistance. Generally strain gauges are used to measure forces up to 10 MN. The non-linearity and repeatability errors of this transducer are ±0.03 and ±0.02 respectively. Fluid pressure Chemical petroleum power industry often need to monitor fluid pressure. Various types of instruments such as diaphragms capsules and bellows are used to monitor the fluid pressure. Specially designed strain gauges doped in diaphragms are generally used to measure the inlet manifold pressure in

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36 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING applications such as automobiles. A typical arrangement of strain gauges on a diaphragm is shown in figure 2.4.6. Application of pressurized fluid displaces the diaphragm. This displacement is measured by the stain gauges in terms of radial and/or lateral strains. These strain gauges are connected to form the arms of a Wheatstone bridge. A diaphragm

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37 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Schematic of Capsule and Bellow Bellow with a LVDT Capsule is formed by combining two corrugated diaphragms. It has enhanced sensitivity in comparison with that of diaphragms. Figure 2.4.7 shows a schematic of a Capsule and a Bellow. A stack of capsules is called as ‘Bellows’. Bellows with a LVDT sensor measures the fluid pressure in terms of change in resultant voltage across the secondary coils of LVDT. Figure above shows a typical arrangement of the same.

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38 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Tactile sensors Schematic of a tactile sensor In general tactile sensors are used to sense the contact of fingertips of a robot with an object. They are also used in manufacturing of ‘touch display’ screens of visual display units VDUs of CNC machine tools. Figure 2.4.9 shows the construction of piezo-electric polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF based tactile sensor. It has two PVDF layers separated by a soft film which transmits the vibrations. An alternating current is applied to lower PVDF layer which generates vibrations due to reverse piezoelectric effect. These vibrations are transmitted to the upper PVDF layer via soft film. These vibrations cause alternating voltage across the upper PVDF layer. When some pressure is applied on the upper PVDF layer the vibrations gets affected and the output voltage changes. This triggers a switch or an action in robots or touch displays. Piezoelectric sensor

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39 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Principle of working of Piezoelectric sensor Piezoelectric sensor is used for the measurement of pressure acceleration and dynamic-forces such as oscillation impact or high speed compression or tension. It contains piezoelectric ionic crystal materials such as Quartz Figure. On application of force or pressure these materials get stretched or compressed. During this process the charge over the material changes and redistributes. One face of the material becomes positively charged and the other negatively charged. The net charge q on the surface is proportional to the amount x by which the charges have been displaced. The displacement is proportion to force. Therefore we can write q kx SF where k is constant and S is a constant termed the charge sensitivity. Liquid flow Liquid flow is generally measured by applying the Bernoulli’s principle of fluid flow through a constriction. The quantity of fluid flow is computed by using the pressure drop measured. The fluid flow volume is proportional to square

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40 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING root of pressure difference at the two ends of the constriction. There are various types of fluid flow measurement devices being used in manufacturing automation such as Orifice plate Turbine meter etc. Orifice Plate Orifice Plate Figure above shows a schematic of Orifice plate device. It has a disc with a hole at its center through which the fluid flows. The pressure difference is measured between a point equal to the diameter of the tube upstream and a point equal to the half the diameter downstream. Orifice plate is inexpensive and simple in construction with no moving parts. It exhibits nonlinear behavior and does not work with slurries. It has accuracy of ± 1.5. Turbine meter Schematic of turbine meter

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41 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Turbine flow meter has an accuracy of ±0.3. It has a multi blade rotor mounted centrally in the pipe along which the flow is to be measured. Figure 2.4.12 shows the typical arrangement of the rotor and a magnetic pick up coil. The fluid flow rotates the rotor. Accordingly the magnetic pick up coil counts the number of magnetic pulses generated due to the distortion of magnetic field by the rotor blades. The angular velocity is proportional to the number of pulses and fluid flow is proportional to angular velocity. 8. Fluid level The level of liquid in a vessel or container can be measured a. directly by monitoring the position of liquid surface b. indirectly by measuring some variable related to the height. Direct measurements involve the use of floats however the indirect methods employ load cells. Potentiometers or LVDT sensors can be used along with the floats to measure the height of fluid column. Force sensed by the load cells is proportional to the height of fluid column. Temperature and light sensors Temperature conveys the state of a mechanical system in terms of expansion or contraction of solids liquids or gases change in electrical resistance of conductors semiconductors and thermoelectric emfs. Temperature sensors such as bimetallic strips thermocouples thermistors are widely used in monitoring of manufacturing processes such as casting molding metal cutting etc. The construction details and principle of working of some of the temperature sensors are discussed in following sections. 1. Bimetallic strips

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42 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Construction and working of Bi-metallic strip Bimetallic strips are used as thermal switch in controlling the temperature or heat in a manufacturing process or system. It contains two different metal strips bonded together. The metals have different coefficients of expansion. On heating the strips bend into curved strips with the metal with higher coefficient of expansion on the outside of the curve. Figure 2.5.1 shows a typical arrangement of a bimetallic strip used with a setting-up magnet. As the strips bend the soft iron comes in closer proximity of the small magnet and further touches. Then the electric circuit completes and generates an alarm. In this way bimetallic strips help to protect the desired application from heating above the pre-set value of temperature. 2. Resistance temperature detectors RTDs RTDs work on the principle that the electric resistance of a metal changes due to change in its temperature. On heating up metals their resistance

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43 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING increases and follows a linear relationship as shown in Figure 2.5.2. The correlation is Rt R0 1 + αT 2.5.1 where Rt is the resistance at temperature T ⁰C and R0 is the temperature at 0⁰C and α is the constant for the metal termed as temperature coefficient of resistance. The sensor is usually made to have a resistance of 100 Ω at 0 °C Behavior of RTD materials Construction of a Resistance temperature detector RTD

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44 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Figure above shows the construction of a RTD. It has a resistor element connected to a Wheatstone bridge. The element and the connection leads are insulated and protected by a sheath. A small amount of current is continuously passing though the coil. As the temperature changes the resistance of the coil changes which is detected at the Wheatstone bridge.RTDs are used in the form of thin films wire wound or coil. They are generally made of metals such as platinum nickel or nickel-copper alloys. Platinum wire held by a high-temperature glass adhesive in a ceramic tube is used to measure the temperature in a metal furnace. Other applications are: • Air conditioning and refrigeration servicing • Food Processing • Stoves and grills • Textile production • Plastics processing • Petrochemical processing • Micro electronics • Air gas and liquid temperature measurement in pipes and tanks • Exhaust gas temperature measurement 3. Thermistors Thermistors follow the principle of decrease in resistance with increasing temperature. The material used in thermistor is generally a semiconductor material such as a sintered metal oxide mixtures of metal oxides chromium cobalt iron manganese and nickel or doped polycrystalline ceramic containing barium titanate BaTiO3 and other compounds. As the temperature of semiconductor material increases the number of electrons able to move about increases which results in more current in the material and reduced resistance. Thermistors are rugged and small in dimensions. They exhibit nonlinear response characteristics. Thermistors are available in the form of a bead pressed disc probe or chip. Figure 2.5.4 shows the construction of a bead type thermistor. It has a small bead of dimension from 0.5 mm to 5 mm coated with ceramic or glass material. The bead is connected to an electric circuit through two leads. To protect from the environment the leads are contained in a stainless steel tube.

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45 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Schematic of a thermistorApplications of Thermistors • To monitor the coolant temperature and/or oil temperature inside the engine • To monitor the temperature of an incubator • Thermistors are used in modern digital thermostats • To monitor the temperature of battery packs while charging • To monitor temperature of hot ends of 3D printers • To maintain correct temperature in the food handling and processing industry equipments • To control the operations of consumer appliances such as toasters coffee makers refrigerators freezers hair dryers etc. 4. Thermocouple Thermocouple works on the fact that when a junction of dissimilar metals heated it produces an electric potential related to temperature. As per Thomas Seebeck 1821 when two wires composed of dissimilar metals are joined at both ends and one of the ends is heated then there is a continuous current which flows in the thermoelectric circuit. Figure 2.5.5 shows the schematic of thermocouple circuit. The net open circuit voltage the Seebeck voltage is a function of junction temperature and composition of two metals. It is given by ΔVAB α ΔT 2.5.2 where α the Seebeck coefficient is the constant of proportionality.

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46 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Schematic of thermocouple circuit Generally Chromel 90 nickel and 10 chromium–Alumel 95 nickel 2 manganese 2 aluminium and 1 silicon are used in the manufacture of a thermocouple. Table 2.5.1 shows the various other materials their combinations and application temperature ranges. Thermo couple material and Temperature range Applications of Thermocouples • To monitor temperatures and chemistry throughout the steel making process

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47 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Testing temperatures associated with process plants e.g. chemical production and petroleum refineries • Testing of heating appliance safety • Temperature profiling in ovens furnaces and kilns • Temperature measurement of gas turbine and engine exhausts • Monitoring of temperatures throughout the production and smelting process in the steel iron and aluminum industry Light sensors A light sensor is a device that is used to detect light. There are different types of light sensors such as photocell/photoresistor and photo diodes being used in manufacturing and other industrial applications. Photoresistor is also called as light dependent resistor LDR. It has a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It is made of a high resistance semiconductor material cadmium sulfide CdS. The resistance of a CdS photoresistor varies inversely to the amount of light incident upon it. Photoresistor follows the principle of photoconductivity which results from the generation of mobile carriers when photons are absorbed by the semiconductor material. Figure 2.5.6 shows the construction of a photo resistor. The CdS resistor coil is mounted on a ceramic substrate. This assembly is encapsulated by a resin material. The sensitive coil electrodes are connected to the control system though lead wires. On incidence of high intensity light on the electrodes the resistance of resistor coil decreases which will be used further to generate the appropriate signal by the microprocessor via lead wires.

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48 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Construction of a photo resistor Photoresistors are used in science and in almost any branch of industry for control safety amusement sound reproduction inspection and measurement. Applications of photo resistor • Computers wireless phones and televisions use ambient light sensors to automatically control the brightness of a screen • Barcode scanners used in retailer locations work using light sensor technology • In space and robotics: for controlled and guided motions of vehicles and robots. The light sensor enables a robot to detect light. Robots can be programmed to have a specific reaction if a certain amount of light is detected. • Auto Flash for camera • Industrial process control Photo diodes Photodiode is a solid-state device which converts incident light into an electric current. It is made of Silicon. It consists of a shallow diffused p-n junction

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49 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING normally a p-on-n configuration. When photons of energy greater than 1.1eV the bandgap of silicon fall on the device they are absorbed and electron- hole pairs are created. The depth at which the photons are absorbed depends upon their energy. The lower the energy of the photons the deeper they are absorbed. Then the electron-hole pairs drift apart. When the minority carriers reach the junction they are swept across by the electric field and an electric current establishes Photodiodes are one of the types of photodetector which convert light into either current or voltage. These are regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed to detect vacuum UV or X-rays or packaged with an opening or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Construction of photo diode detector Figure 2.5.7 shows the construction of Photo diode detector. It is constructed from single crystal silicon wafers. It is a p-n junction device. The upper layer is p layer. It is very thin and formed by thermal diffusion or ion implantation of doping material such as boron. Depletion region is narrow and is sandwiched between p layer and bulk n type layer of silicon. Light irradiates at front surface anode while the back surface is cathode. The incidence of light on anode generates a flow of electron across the p-n junction which is the measure of light intensity. Applications of photo diodes

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50 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Camera: Light Meters Automatic Shutter Control Auto-focus Photographic Flash Control Medical: CAT Scanners - X ray Detection Pulse Oximeters Blood Particle Analyzers Industry • Bar Code Scanners • Light Pens • Brightness Controls • Encoders • Position Sensors • Surveying Instruments • Copiers - Density of Toner Safety Equipment • Smoke Detectors • Flame Monitors • Security Inspection Equipment - Airport X ray • Intruder Alert - Security System Automotive • Headlight Dimmer • Twilight Detectors • Climate Control - Sunlight Detector Communications • Fiber Optic Links • Optical Communications • Optical Remote Control Module-III Signals systems and Actuating Devices: Introduction to signals systems and control system representation linearization of nonlinear systems time Delays measures of system performance types of actuating devices selection. SIGNAL: • One can note that what is really being received through sensor and what is being directed to the actuator is simply the ‘signal’. • A signal is a time varying quantity conveying some information. • The transducer output is simply the ‘signal’ and the actuator input is also ‘signal’. • Examples of signal include: • Electrical signals

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51 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING – Voltages and currents in a circuit • Acoustic signals – Acoustic pressure sound over time • Mechanical signals – Velocity of a car over time • Video signals – Intensity level of a pixel camera video over time How is a Signal Represented • Mathematically signals are represented as a function of one or more independent variables. • For instance a black white video signal intensity is dependent on x y coordinates and time tfxyt Types of Signals • Periodicsignals: a signal is periodic if it repeats itself after a fixed period T i.E. Xt xt+t for all t. A sint signal is periodic. • Even and odd signals: a signal is even if x-t xt i.E. It can be reflected in the axis at zero. A signal is odd if x-t -xt. Examples are cost and sint signals respectively.

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52 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Deterministic signal: completely predictable can be a deterministic function of the variables. – E.g. sint. cost… • Random signal: cannot predict the future values of the signal exactly evolves uncertainties. Can only be described with statistical observations the probability of the value at certain position. – E.g. noise vibration stock market… • Continuous-time signal It defined in the continuous time period. It is a function of a continuous independent variable. Note that the “continuous” refers to the variable t. The amplitude could be either continuous or discontinuous. • Digital signal Digital signal is the signal that is both discrete in time and quantized in amplitude. • Discrete-time signal It defined only at a discrete set of values of independent variables. It can be obtained by sampling the continuous signal. Digital signal processing requires a discrete-time signal representation. Why signal processing • A signal is composed is composed of many components.

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53 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Analysis that are being carried out is to know the amplitude frequency and phase of the components either at a particular point of time and/or in an interval. • In order to take advantage of processing power of modern digital processors or computers it is necessary to convert the real world analog signals in to an appropriate form which can be stored and processed by the use of digital systems and devices. • Efficient make use of information e.g. amplify or filter out information detect patterns different domain information • Better transmission and processing e.g. distortions prevent interference SYSTEM: • A system or plant is a naturally occurring or man-made entity which transforms causeor inputs into effectsor outputs. • System behaviour can be modified by interactions with other systems. • A cd player takes the signal on the cd and transforms it into a signal sent to the loud speaker. CONTROL SYSTEM: A control system is a collection of components that is designed to drive a given system plant with a given input to a desired output. In a control system there is an interconnection between the constituent components. These components may be electrical mechanical hydraulic pneumatic etc. • Modification of the behaviour of a system such that a desired behaviour is achieved is called control. • Controls are implemented by attaching a controller or compensator to the plant. The resulting combined system is called a control system.

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54 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Control systems incorporate either human or machine controllers. When the controller is machine based it is called automatic control. • Within any control system there are variables and functions. • Variables can be either constant or may vary with respect to some independent variable. • Constant variables are called parameters. • Varying variables are called signals. Basic function of a control system are: • To minimise the error between the actual and desired output. • To minimise the time response to load changes in the system. Requirement of a control system: • Stability: for any change in the input signal the output of the system reads or makes its response at a reasonable value. • Accuracy: the closeness of the measured value to the true value is known as accuracy. • Response: the quickness with which an instrument responds to a change in the output signal is known as response. • Sensitivity: The sensitivity measures how much change is caused in the output bysmall changes to the reference input. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM: OPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM The term open-loop comes from the fact that the fact that the output only depends on the inputs. This is a complete system by itself. The control system takes the input from the controller in order to produce output by the action of the plant. The relation between the input and output are mentioned in terms of transfer function which is defined as the ratio between the Laplace transform of the output and the Laplace transform

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55 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING of the input. If the output is proportional to the input the plant is called a linear system. In a basic open-loop control system the controller takes the reference input called setpoint and outputs a control signal to the plant or process. This configuration is also called feed-forward open-loop control system. The controller is designed and turned using accurate model of the plant. Any inaccuracy in the system model results discrepancy in the desired output response. 1.1.1 CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM A closed-loop control system on the other hand uses input as well as some portion of the output to regulate the output. Closed-loop systems are also called feedback control system. In feedback control the variable required to be controlled is measured. This measurement is compared with a given setpoint. If the error results the controller takes this error and decides what action should be taken to compensate to remove the error. Errors occur when an operator changes the setpoint intentionally or when a process load changes the process variable accidentally. The error could be positive or negative. ACTUATOR What is an Actuator An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system for example by opening a valve. In simple terms it is a "mover". An actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. The control signal is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current

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56 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING pneumatic or hydraulic pressure or even human power. Its main energy source may be an electric current hydraulic fluid pressure or pneumatic pressure. When it receives a control signal an actuator responds by converting the signals energy into mechanical motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple a fixed mechanical or electronic system software-based e.g. a printer driver robot control system a human or any other input. Different Types of Actuators Mechanical Actuator Pneumatic Actuator Hydraulic Actuator Electrical Actuator Hybrid Actuator Mechanical Actuator: In mechanical actuators normally a rotary motion is converted into linear motion to perform an operation. Such actuator normally involves gears rails pulley chain springs etc to operate.

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57 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING A basic example of a mechanical actuator is chain block hoisting weight in which mechanical motion of chain over the sprocket is utilized to lift a rated load. Pneumatic Actuator: Pneumatic energy is most commonly used for actuators used for main engine controls. In this type compressed air at high pressure is used which converts this energy into either linear or rotary motion. A pneumatic actuator converts energy formed by vacuum or compressed air at high pressure into either linear or rotary motion. Pneumatic energy is desirable for main engine controls because it can quickly respond in starting and stopping as the power source does not need to be stored in reserve for operation. Moreover pneumatic actuators are safer cheaper and often more reliable and powerful than other actuators. Pneumatic actuators enable considerable forces to be produced from relatively small pressure changes. These forces are often used with valves to move diaphragms to affect the flow of liquid through the valve. Hydraulic Actuator: Unlike air liquid cannot be compressed and hence hydraulics generates higher energy than any other system. All systems involving high loads are operated by hydraulic actuators in which oil pressure is applied on mechanical actuator to give an output in terms of rotary or linear motion. A hydraulic actuator consists of cylinder or fluid motor that uses hydraulic power to facilitate mechanical operation. The mechanical motion gives an output in terms of linear rotatory or oscillatory motion. As liquids are nearly impossible to compress a hydraulic actuator can exert a large force. The drawback of this approach is its limited acceleration. The hydraulic cylinder consists of a hollow cylindrical tube along which a piston can slide. The term single acting is used when the fluid pressure is applied to just one side of the piston. The piston can move in only one direction a spring being frequently used to give the piston a return stroke. The term double acting is used when pressure is applied on each side of the piston any difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston moves the piston to one side or the other. Electrical Actuator:

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58 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING It is one of the cleanest and readily available forms of actuating system as it does not involve oil as there is no need to compress air hence no extra machinery. Electrical energy is always available on ship. The electrical energy is used to actuate a mechanical system using magnetic field i.e. EMF. Basic example are electrical motor operated valve and magnetic valve actuator or solenoid valve. An electric actuator is powered by a motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical torque. The electrical energy is used to actuate equipment such as multi-turn valves. Additionally a brake is typically installed above the motor to prevent the media from opening valve. If no brake is installed the actuator will uncover the opened valve and rotate it back to its closed position. If this continues to happen the motor and actuator will eventually become damaged. 6 It is one of the cleanest and most readily available forms of actuator because it does not directly involve oil or other fossil fuels. Hybrid Actuators: These are mixture of some of the above systems which control the mechanical part of the system. Common example is a thermo hydraulic Electronic actuator used in operating valves in hot water system wherein hot water liquid is used along with electronic system acting as control for the valve Examples of actuators Comb drive Digital micromirror device Electric motor Electroactive polymer Hydraulic cylinder Piezoelectric actuator Pneumatic actuator Screw jack Servomechanism Solenoid Stepper motor Shape-memory alloy Hydraulic actuators Performance metrics Performance metrics or actuators include speed acceleration and force alternatively angular speed angular acceleration and torque as well

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59 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING as energy efficiency and considerations such as mass volume operating conditions and durability among others. Force When considering force in actuators for applications two main metrics should be considered. These two are static and dynamic loads. Static load is the force capability of the actuator while not in motion. Conversely the dynamic load of the actuator is the force capability while in motion. Speed Speed should be considered primarily at a no-load pace since the speed will invariably decrease as the load amount increases. The rate the speed will decrease will directly correlate with the amount of force and the initial speed. Operating conditions Actuators are commonly rated using the standard IP Code rating system. Those that are rated for dangerous environments will have a higher IP rating than those for personal or common industrial use. Durability This will be determined by each individual manufacturer depending on usage and quality. ACTUATING DEVICES Actuating devices in access control systems directly reduce or give access towards different areas of controlled territory or the object. Steered latches locks turnstiles of different variants elevators entrance security cabins automatic gates and lots of others are used as actuating devices. Control of actuating devices is fulfilled by the controllers of access control system. The selection of actuating device depends upon the object’s type upon the equipment’s service conditions specifics of the mode and upon security requirements on the object. Depending upon these and some other factors the variant of actuating devices’ access control system can differ a lot. Electromechanical locks and latches Electromechanical locks and latches operate quite simply. In electromechanical catchers the electromagnet is used which under tension drags the locking device enabling opening of the door. In powerful locks of vault type special electric drive is used for opening-closing of the locking

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60 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING pins. If building object is planned to be equipped by the access control system electromechanical locks should be better used as actuating devices. In case of fitting put of the operating object electromechanical latches should be better chosen which can be utilized alongside with already installed locking devices. Electromagnetic locks Electromagnetic lock is a powerful magnet installed on the doorframe and a metal plate fixed on the door. The electromagnet is supplied by electric hold- on current it attracts and holds the door with the plate. Electromagnets used in electromagnet locks can have retentivity power up to one ton and more. While door-open signal injection electromagnet power is switched off and the door can be freely opened. Doors with electromagnetic locks should be by all means equipped by the door closers for resetting into initial position. Turnstiles Turnstile is a revolute system for access control to the secured territory. Turnstiles thanks to their construction have high throughput efficiency that is why they are installed in places of mass pass onto enclosed territory – checkpoints railway/metro line stations and i.e. In ordinary state the turnstile blocks the passage while open-passage signal injection the turnstile can freely rotate about its axis enabling the pass onto the territory of the object. There are half- and full-length turnstiles. Half-length turnstiles can be got over that is why they are used on the objects with low and moderate security requirements and are installed in direct closeness to the watchpost. For important objects full-length turnstiles should be better used they thoroughly block the passage ability to the territory. Entrance security cabins Entrance security cabins like turnstiles are intended for installation in places of mass pass to the secured territory but entrance security cabins supply intensified security level having at the same time lower flow capacity. Entrance security cabin of a tambour type is the premises with two doors among which only one can remain open. After entrance to the security cabin the first door closes and only after controller’s access admittance signal the second door opens. Entrance security cabin of the tambour type meets high security requirements but has minimal flow capacity – 8/12 persons per minute.

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61 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING To increase throughput capacity entrance security cabins of rotary type are used one rotary door is used in them reminding turnstile by its construction. Rotary entrance security cabins can meet high security requirements at the same time their flow capacity is two times higher than entrance security cabins of tambour type-18/22 persons per minute. To increase efficiency of entrance security cabins variety of certain devices - input metal detectors for weapons disclosure and weighing systems averting simultaneous passage of more than one person are used in their construction. Entrance security cabins are manufactured of armor-coated glass or of the metal. Elevators Elevators are also used as one of the variants of actuating devices in access control systems. Elevator is an entrance security cabin by its essence from which a person can get only to those floors where he has access authorization. Elevator’s stop on another floors and door opening is forbidden by access control system. Automatic gates and turnstiles Automatic gates and turnstiles are used for limitation of free automobile transport movement. Automatic turnstiles of different constructions as well as automatic gates of various versions – swinging sliding upward acting gates and roller shutters are used for this purpose. On the ordinary objects gates or turnstiles are enough means for transport’s encroachment restriction to the enclosed territory. On the objects with high security level anti-ram barriers for emergency automobile braking are used further to the gates and turnstiles. Other examples Video surveillance systems Perimeter security systems Alarm systems Access control systems o Actuating devices o Controllers o Entryphones o Keys and readers Real time interfacing: Introduction Element of a Data Acquisition and control system overview of the I/O process. Installation of the I/O card and software.

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62 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Real time interface What is real time Real-time is a quantitative notion of time. Real-time is measured using a physical real clock. In contrast to real time logical time also known as virtual time deals with a qualitative notion of time and is expressed using event ordering relations such as before after sometimes eventually precedes succeeds etc. A system is called a real-time system when we need quantitative expression of time i.e. real-time to describe the behavior of the system. Basic model of RTI Sensor: converts some physical characteristic of its environment into electrical signals. An example of a sensor is a photo-voltaic cell which converts light energy into electrical energy. A wide variety of

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63 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING temperature and pressure sensors are also used. A temperature sensor typically operates based on the principle of a thermocouple. Actuator: Device that takes its inputs from the output interface of a computer and converts these electrical signals into some physical actions on its environment. Physical actions :- motion change of thermal electrical pneumatic or physical characteristics of some objects. Eg:- motor Signal Conditioning Units: Electrical signals produced by a computer can rarely be used to directly drive an actuator. The computer signals usually need conditioning before they can be used by the actuator. This is termed output conditioning. Input conditioning is required to be carried out on sensor signals before they can be accepted by the computer. -Important types of conditioning carried out on raw signals generated by sensors and digital signals generated by computers 1. Voltage amplifier 2. Voltage level shifting 3. Frequency range shifting and filtering 4. Signal mode conversion Interface Unit: Normally commands from the CPU are delivered to the actuator through an output interface. An output interface converts the stored voltage into analog form and then outputs this to the actuator circuitry. This of course would require the value generated to be written on a register Characteristics

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64 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Time constraints New Correctness Criterion Embedded Safety-Criticality Concurrency Distributed and Feedback Structure Task criticality Custom hardware Reactive Stability Exception handling Types of real time task A real-time task can be classified into ✓ Hard real-time task ✓ Soft real-time task ✓ Firm real-time task Hard Real-Time Tasks A hard real-time task is one that is constrained to produce its results within certain predefined time bounds. The system is considered to have failed whenever any of its hard real-time tasks does not produce its required results before the specified time bound. Firm Real-Time Tasks Every firm real-time task is associated with some predefined deadline before which it is required to produce its results. 1.7.3. Soft Real-Time Tasks

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65 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Soft real-time tasks also have time bounds associated with them. However unlike hard and firm real-time tasks the timing constraints on soft real-time tasks are not expressed as absolute values. Instead the constraints are expressed either in terms of the average response times required. Applications Industrial Applications Example 1: Chemical Plant Control Chemical plant control systems are essentially a type of process control application. In an automated chemical plant a real-time computer periodically monitors plant conditions. Example 2: Automated Car Assembly Plant Ex-3 Medical Robot Used in Recovery of Displaced Radioactive Material Ex-4 Peripheral equipments Ex 5: Laser Printer Ex-6. Internet and Multimedia Applications video conferencing Elements of data acquisition What is Data acquisition Data acquisition systems are used by most engineers and scientists for laboratory research industrial control test and measurement to input and output data to and from a computer. Elements Sensor Signal conditioning Analog inputA/D board

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66 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Computer Output interface DAQ BLOCK DIAGRAM Sensor Measures physical variables such as temperature strain flow force and motion Signal conditioning:- To convert sensor outputs into signals readable by analog input board A/D in the PC Analog Input A/D board:- Converts these signals into digital format usable by PC Computer:

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67 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING A computer with appropriate software to process analyze and lock the data to the disk. Such software may also provide a graphical display of the data. Output Interface: Provides an appropriate process control response Module-Iv Application of software in Mechatronics: Advance application in Mechantronics. Sensors for conditioning Monitoring Mechatronic Control in Automated Manufacturing Micro sensors in Mechatronics. Case studies and examples in Data Acquisition and control. Automated manufacturing etc. Application of software in Mechatronics Modelling analysis design data acquisition and control are important activities within the field of Mechatronics. Computer software tools and environments are available for effectively carrying out both at the learning level and at the professional application level. MATLAB is an interactive computer environment with a high-level language and tools for scientific and technical computation modelling and simulation design and control of dynamic systems. SIMULINK is a graphical environment for modelling simulation a n d analysis of dynamic systems and is available as an extension to MATLAB.

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68 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING LabVIEW is graphical programming language and a program development environment for data acquisition processing display and instrument control. Simulink provides a graphical environment for modeling simulating and analyzing linear and nonlinear dynamic systems. First a suitable block diagram model of the system is developed on the computer screen and stored. The SIMULINK environment provides almost any block that is used i n a typical block diagram. These include transfer functions integrators gains summing junctions inputs i.e. source blocks and outputs i.e. graph blocks or scope blocks. Such a block may be selected and inserted into the workspace as many times as needed by clicking and dragging using the mouse. These blocks may be connected as required using directed lines. A block may be opened by clicking on it and the parameter values and text may be inserted or modified as needed. Once the simulation block diagram is generated in this manner it may be run and the response may be observed through an output block graph block or scope block. There are two types of elements in SIMULINK: blocks and lines. Blocks are used to generate or input modify combine output and display signals. Lines are used to transfer signals from one block to another. Starting Simulink First enter the MATLAB environment. You will see the MATLAB command prompt . To start SIMULINK enter the command: simulink. Alternatively you may click on the “Simulink” button at the top of the MATLAB command window. Basic Elements:- There are two types of elements in SIMULINK: blocks and lines. Blocks are used to generate or input modify combine output and display signals. Lines are used to transfer signals from one block to another. Blocks:- The subfolders below the SIMULINK folder show the general classes o f blocks available for use. They are • Continuous: Linear continuous-time system elements integrators transfer functions state-space models etc. A signal can be either a scalar signal single signal or a vector signal several signals in parallel. The lines used to transmit scalar signals and vector signals are identical whether it is a scalar or vector is determined by the blocks connected by the line.

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69 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING aSIMULINK model of a robotic sewing machine b Simulation results. MATLAB: ❖ MATLAB interactive computer environment is very useful in computational activities in Mechatronics. ❖ Computations involving scalars vectors and matrices can be carried out and the results can be graphically displayed and printed. ❖ MATLAB toolboxes are available for performing specific tasks in a particular area of study such as control systems fuzzy logic neural network data acquisition image processing signal processing

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70 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING system identification optimization model predictive control robust control and statistics. ❖ Mathematical computations can be done by using the MATLAB command window. Simply type in the computations against the MATLAB prompt “” as illustrated next. An example of a simple computation using MATLAB is given below. x2 y-3 zx2-xy+4 z-14 MATLAB Arithmetic Operations Symbol Operation + Addition - Subtraction Multiplication / Division Power Useful Mathematical Functions in MATLAB Function Description abs Absolute value/magnitude acos Arc-cosine inverse cosine acosh Arc-hyperbolic-cosine asin Arc-sine atan Arc-tan cos Cosine cosh Hyperbolic cosine exp Exponential function imag Imaginary part of a complex number log Natural logarithm log10 Log to base 10 common log real Real part of a complex number sign Signum function sin Sine sqrt Positive square root tan Tan function

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71 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Some Relational Operations Operator Description Less than Less than or equal to Greater than Greater than or equal to Equal to Not equal to ❖ Basic Logical Operations Operator Description AND | OR NOT LABVIEW • LabVIEW or Laboratory Virtual Engineering Workbench is a product of National Instruments. It is a software development environment for data acquisition instrument control image acquisition motion control and presentation. • LabVIEW is a complied graphical environment which allows the user to create programs graphically through wired icons similar to creating a flowchart. Working with LabVIEW:- • As a software centered system LabVIEW resides in a desktop computer laptop or PXI as an application where it acts as a set of virtual instruments VIs providing the functionality of traditional hardware instruments such as oscilloscopes. • Comparing to physical instruments with fixed functions LabVIEW VIs are flexible and can easily be reconfigured to different applications. • It is able to interface with various hardware devices such as GPIB data acquisition modules distributed I/O image acquisition and motion control making it a modular solution.

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72 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING ADVANCED APPLICATION OF MECHATRONICS Application areas of mechatronics are numerous and involve that concern mixed systems and particularly electromechanical systems. These application may involve: 1. Modification and improvements to conventional designs by using a mechatronics approach. 2. Development and implementation of original and innovative mechatronics system. In either category the application will employ sensing actuation control signal conditioning component interconnection and interfacing and communication generally using tools of mechanical electrical and electronic computer and control engineering. • Some important areas of application are indicated below. – Transportation – Manufacturing and production engineering – Medical and healthcare – Modern office environment – Household application – Computer industry – Civil engineering – Space engineering – Military purpose Transportation:

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73 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING There are two field used in the mechatronics system 1. Ground transportation 2. Air transportation 1. Ground transportation: In ground transportation in particular automobiles trains and automated transit systems use mechatronics devices. They include 1. Airbag deployment systems 2 .Antilock braking systemsABS 3. Cruise control system 4. Active suspension system 5. Navigation 6. Control in intelligent vehicular highway systemsIVHS

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74 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING

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75 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING 2. Air transportation: • Modern aircraft designs with advanced materials structures electronics and control benefit from the concurrent and integrated approach of mechatronics to develop improved • Designs of flight simulators • Navigation systems • Flight control system

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76 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING • Landing gear mechanisms • Travelers comfort aids

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77 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Manufacturing and production engineering: • Manufacturing And Production Engineering is another broad field that uses mechatronics technologies and systems. – Factory robots for welding spray painting assembly inspection etc. – Automated guided vehiclesAGVs – Modern computer-numerical control CNC machine tolls – Machining centre – Rapidand virtual prototyping systems – Micromachining systems

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78 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Medical and healthcare • General patient care are being developed and used. – Patient transit devices • In medical and healthcare application robotic technologies for example – Surgery – Rehabilitationregain or improve neurocognitive function that has been lost or diminished – Drug dispensingintermediary drug – Various diagnostic probes – Scanners – Beds – Exercise machines Modern office environment

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79 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING 1. Automated filing systems 2. Multi-functional copying machinesperform copying scanning printing fax etc 3. Food dispensers 4.Multimedia presentation 5.Meeting rooms 6. Climate control system incorporate mechatronics technology Household application • In household application –Home security systems and robots –Vacuum cleaners and robots –Washers –dryers –Dishwashers –Garage door openers –Entertainment canters

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80 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Computer industry • In this computer industry – Hard disk drivesHDD – Disk retrieval ejection devices – Cooling fan Civil engineering • In civil engineering application – Cranes – Excavators – Earth removal. – Mixing and so on will improve their performance by adopting a mechatronic design approach Space application • In space application – Mobile robots such as NANA’s mars exploration rover – Space station robots – Space vehicles are fundamentally mechatronics systems

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81 | P a g e EKEEDA – MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Military Applications: • In military application – Bomb detection robot – Surveillance vehicles – Drones

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